independent Regulatory Agencies
agencies that are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in nature and operation. Examples include the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency.
Federal Communications Commissions
1. Regulates airways.
2. Regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable.
Central Intelligence Agency
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest
becoming more intricate or complex
1. the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability,
2. hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
large administrative agencies reflecting a hierarchical authority, job specialization, and rules and regulations that drive them
1. vote against
2. a vote that blocks a decision
The joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the Twelfth Amendment.
assumed powers of the president not specifically listed in the Constitution.
order signed by the president that has the effect of law, even though it is not passed by Congress. An example of an executive order includes President Clinton's order legalizing the abortion pill, RU486
chief of staff
The head of the White House staff.
1. the heads of the Defense, State, Treasury, and Justice departments
2. members of the cabinet who wield influence with the president because they head departments that are concerned with national issues
a business that the federal government runs
federal trade commission
an independent agency of the United States federal government that maintains fair and free competition
1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2. an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
Theory of Public Bureaucracy
States that bureaucratic organizations constantly seek to enhance their power, whether by creating new titles, adding more staff, or increasing their budgets.
law that places restrictions on the kind of political activity a federal employee may participate in
Providing automatic increases to compensate for inflation.
when a president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it
a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries
state of the union
Constitutionally required address by the President typically given in a joint session of Congress.
placing private property in the custody of an officer of the law
executive office of the president
1. the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
2. The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units.
newer departments that have less access to the president but have evolved in such a way as to provide interest-group access to the executive branch of government
securities and exchange commission
1. an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
2. , Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
part of the "unwritten Constitution," it was first established by George Washington and includes federal departments such as state, defense, etc.
Federal Reserve Board
A seven-member board that sets member banks reserve requirements, controls the discount rate, and makes other economic decisions.
national security agency
the United States cryptologic organization that coordinates and directs highly specialized activities to protect United States information systems and to produce foreign intelligence information
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
The process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic rules or spending.
An action taken by Congress to reverse a presidential veto, requiring a two-thirds majority in each chamber.
Agreements between the US president and the leaders of other nations that do not require Senate approval
war power resolution
1973 act that sates that a president can commit the military only after a declaration of war by the Congress, by specific authorization by Congress, if there is a national emergency, or if the use of force is in the national interest of the U.S
When Congress cannot reach agreement and pass appropriations bills, these resolutions allow agencies to spend at the level of the previous year.
Office of Management & Budget (OMB)
its director, appointed with the consent of the Senate is responsible for the preparation of the massive federal budget, which must be submitted to the Congress in January each year.
the commission that is given to a government and its policies through an electoral victory
federal election commission (FEC)
a commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. It consists of six commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits
environmental protection agency (EPA)
regulates air and water pollution, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, and toxic substances. It is the main environmental regulatory agency
Senior Executive service
Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
the dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party.
Authority given by Congress to the federal bureaucracy to use reasonable judgment in implementing the laws.
description of presidential politics in which all presidential actions are taken with re-election in mind
take care clause
The constitutional requirement (in Article II, Section 3) that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws.
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
line item veto
Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
agencies in the executive branch of the federal government formed by Congress to help enforce laws and regulations not covered by the executive departments