The First 2 years: Psychosocial development

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Psychosocial development includes ______(1) development and _______(2) development.

1. emotional
2. social

The first emotions that can be reliably discerned in infants are _______(1) and _______(2). Other early infant emotions include _______(3) and ________(4). Infants' pleasure in seeing faces is first expressed by the ________(5), which appears at about ________(6) weeks.

1. pleasure
2. pain
3. curiosity
4. happiness
5. social smile
6. 6

Anger becomes evident by about ______(1) months. During infancy, anger ______(is/is not) a healthy response, and usually occurs in response to ______(3). In contrast, sadness indicates _____(4) and is accompanied by an increase in the stress hormone ______(5).

1. 6
2. is
3. frustration
4. withdrawal
5. cortisol

Fully formed fear emerges at about ______(1) months. One expression of this new emotion is _____(2); another is _______(3); or fear of abandonment, which is normal at age ________(4) year(s) and intensifies by age (5) year(s). During the second year, anger and fear typically __________(increase/decrease) and become more _________(7) toward specific things.

1. 9
2. stranger wariness
3. separation anxiety
4. 1
5. 2
6. decrease
7. targeted (focused)

Toward the end of the second year, the new emotions of ______(1), ______(2), ______(3) and _______(4) become apparent. These emotions require an awareness of ______(5).

1. pride
2. shame
3. embarrassment
4. guilt
5. other people

An important foundation for emotional growth is ______(1); very young infants have no sense of ______(2). This emerging sense of "me" and "mine" leads to a new ______(3) of others. This sense usually emerges at the same time as advances in ______(4) and using ______(5) pronouns. This occurs at about _______(6) months.

1. self-awareness
2. self
3. consciousness
4. pretending
5. first-person
6. 18

Pride is linked with the infant's maturing ______(1). Telling toddlers that they are strong or smart may _______(help/hinder) their self-awareness, making it seem as if pride comes from ________(3).

1. self-concept
2. hinder
3. pleasing other people

Emotional development depends partly on maturation of the developing ______(1), along with having varied _______(2) and good ______(3). Infants' understanding of themselves is related to maturation of the brain's left _______(4). Emotional development is directly tied to brain development in ________(5) awareness and reactions to _______(6).

1. brain
2. experiences
3. nutrition
4. temporoparietal junction
5. social
6. stress

The stimulation of one sensory stimulus to the brain by another is called _____(1). This type of experience is partly _______(2) and less common among _______(infants/older children) than it is among _______(infants/older children). The ability to link experiences in one sense with those in another is called ________(5) perception.

1. synesthesia
2. genetic
3. older children
4. infants
5. cross-modal

The maturation of the cortical area called the ______(1) is directly connected to emotional self-regulation. As emotional development proceeds, specific emotions come to be aroused by particular _______(2). This indicates that infant emotional reactions depend partly on _______(3).

1. anterior cingulate gyrus
2. people
3. memory

Chronic early stress, such as occurs with ______(1), can impair the brain's ______(2), which regulates various bodily functions and hormone production. Helpful behaviors such as ______(3) demonstrate the crucial role fathers can play in helping new mothers.

1. abuse
2. hypothalamus
2. kangaroo care

In Freud's theory, development begins with the _______(1) stage, so named because the _______(2) is the infant's prime source of gratification and pleasure.

1. Oral
2.mouth

According to Freud, in the second year, the prime focus of gratification comes from stimulation and control of the bowels. Freud referred to this period as the ______ stage.

anal

Freud believed that the potential conflicts of these stages had ____(short-term/long-term) consequences. If the conflicts are not resolved,the child may become an adult stuck in the first stage, with an _______(2).

1. long-term
2. oral fixation

(A View from Science) To avoid conflict and the development of an "anal personality" _____(1) theory has been undermined by ______(2) research that has found that toilet training occurs in a diversity of ways. Another approach based on principles of _______(3) claims that toilet training can occur in as short a period as one day. The influential theorist _______(4) believes that toilet training should begin around age _______(5), when children are "ready" based on their ______(6), _______(7), and ______(8) maturity.

1. psychoanalytic
2. cross-cultural
3. behaviorism
4. T. Berry Brazelton
5. 2
6. cognitive
7. emotional
8. biological

The theorist who believed that development occurs through a series of psychosocial crises is ______(1). According to his theory, the crisis of infancy is one of _______(2), whereas the crisis of toddlerhood is one of _______(3).

1. Erik Erikson
2. trust versus mistrust
3. autonomy versus shame and doubt

According to the perspective of ______(1), personality is molded through the processes of ________(2) and _______(3) of the child's spontaneous behaviors. A strong proponent of this position was ________(4).

1. behaviorism
2. reinforcement
3. punishment
4. John Watson

Later theorists incorporated the role of _______(1) learning, that is, infants' tendencies to observe and _______(2) the personality traits of their parents. The theorist most closely associated with this type of learning is _______(3).

1. social
2. imitate
3. Albert Bandura

Both psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories emphasize the role of _______(1), especially the _______(2). In retrospect, this focus is too _____(narrow/broad).

1. parents
2. mother
3. narrow

According to cognitive theory, a person's ______(1) and _______(2) determine his or her perspective on the world. Early experiences are important because ______(3), _______(4), and _______(5) make them so. Infants use their early relationships to build a _________(6) that becomes a frame of reference for organizing perceptions and experiences. Following this view, the child's ________(7) of early experiences is crucial.

1. values
2. thoughts
3. beliefs
4. perceptions
5. memories
6. working model
7. interpretation

Cognitive theory also takes into account the social _________(1), or cultural beliefs, of the entire community. Such ideas make up an _______(2), a theory of child rearing that underlies the values and practices of a particular culture or ethnic group.

1. constructions
2. ethnotheory

According to _______(1) theory, every inherited trait affects the social context, and vice versa. Each infant is born with a _______(2) predisposition to develop certain emotional traits. Among these are the traits of _________(3). Unlike personality traits--that is, traits that are _______(4), temperament traits originate in the ________(5).

1. systems
2. genetic
3. temperament
4. learned
5. genes

The classic long-term study of children's temperament is the ________(1). The study found that by 3 months, infants can be clustered into one of four types: ________(2), ________(3), _______(4) and _________(5).

1. New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS)
2. easy
3. difficult
4. slow to warm up
5. hard to classify

Other researchers studied adult personality traits and came up with the Big Five. These include ________(1), _______(2), ________(3), _______(4) and _________(5). Researchers found both ________(6) and ________(7) in these traits, with each trait affecting the others and maturation affecting them all.

1. openness
2. conscientiousness
3. extroversion
4. agreeableness
5. neuroticism
6. change
7. continuity

Physically close, ________(1) parenting predicts toddlers who later are less _______(2) and more _______(3), in comparison to physically far, ________(4) parenting, which produces children with the opposite traits.

1. proximal
2. self-aware
3. compliant
4. distal

Theory: Psychoanalytic Theory, Freud
Stages or Continuous? (1)
Important concepts: (2)
Effects on Emotional Development: (3)

1. Stages
2. Oral and anal stages sexual impulses and unconscious conflicts
3. if conflicts not resolved, fixation may occur.

Theory: Erikson
Stages or Continuous? (1)
Important Concepts: (2)
Effects on emotional development: (3)

1. stages
2. psychosocial conflict
3. if conflicts are not resolved, the effects could last a lifetime, for example, creating a suspicious and pessimistic adult (mistrusting).

Theory: Behaviorism
Stages or continuous? (1)
Important Concepts: (2)
Effects on emotional development: (3)

1. continuous
2. emphasizes that emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish a child's spontaneous behavior.
3. the result can last a lifetime if no other reinforcement or punishment changes the behavior.

Theory: Cognitive Theory
Stages or continuous? (1)
Important concepts: (2)
Effects on emotional development: (3)

1. continuous
2. believes that infants develop a working model that serves as a frame of reference later in life.
3. they use this model to organize their perceptions and experiences.

Theory: Systems Theory
Stages or continuous? (1)
Important concepts: (2)
Effects on emotional development: (3)

1. continuous
2 & 3. each person is born with a unique temperament that affects and is affected by life's experiences.

Theory: Sociocultural Theory
Stages or continuous? (1)
Important concepts: (2)
Effects on emotional development: (3)

1. continuous
2 & 3. contends that social and cultural factors have a significant influence on development and continue throughout the life span.

An important factor in healthy psychosocial development is _______(1) between the developing child and the caregiving context. Children who are high in the Big Five trait of ______(2) are more affected by their parents' responsiveness than are _______(3) children. Ineffective or harsh parenting combined with a child's _______(4) temperament is likely to create an antisocial, destructive child.

1. goodness of fit
2. neuroticism
3. easygoing
4. negative

The coordinated interaction of response between infant and caregiver is called _______(1). Partly through this interaction, infants learn to ______(2) and to develop some of the basic skills of ________(3). Synchrony usually begins with ______(infants/parents) imitating _______(infants/parents).

1. synchrony
2. read other people's emotions
3. social interaction
4. parents
5. infants

To study the importance of synchrony in development, researchers use an experimental device, called the ________(1) technique, in which the caregiver ______(does/does not) show any facial expression.

1. still-face
2. does not

The emotional bond that develops between slightly older infants and their caregivers is called _______.

attachment

Approaching and following the caregiver are signs of ________(1) behaviors, while snuggling, touching, and holding are signs of _______(2) behaviors.

1. proximity-seeking
2. contact-maintaining

An infant who derives comfort and confidence from the secure base provided by the caregiver is displaying _________(1) (type B). In this type of relationship, the caregiver acts as a ________(2) from which the child is willing to venture forth.

1. secure attachment
2. base for exploration

By contrast, _______(1) is characterized by an infant's fear, anger, or indifference. Two extremes of this type of relationship are (2)_______ (type A) and (3)______ / (4)______ (type C).

1. insecure attachment
2. insecure-avoidant attachment
3. insecure-resistant
4.ambivalent attachment

(text and Table 4.4) Briefly describe the two types of insecure attachment as well as disorganized attachment.

Some infants are avoidant: they engage in little interaction with their mothers before and after her departure.
Others are anxious and resistant: They cling nervously to their mothers, are unwilling to explore, become very upset when she leaves, and refuse to be comforted when she returns. Others are disorganized: They show an inconsistent mixture of behaviors toward their mothers.

The procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth to measure attachment is called the _______(1). Approximately _______(2) of all normal infants tested with this procedure demonstrate secure attachment. When infant-caregiver interactions are inconsistent, infants are classified as _______(3).

1. Strange Situation
2. two-thirds
3. disorganized

The most troubled infants may be those who are type _______(1). Attachment status ______(can/cannot) change.

1. D
2. can

The search for information about another person's feelings is called _______ _______.

social referencing

In _______ (most/some/ a few) nations and ethnic groups, fathers spend much less time with infants than mothers do.

most

The social information from fathers tends to be more ________(1) than that from mothers, who are more __________(2) and ________(3).

1. encouraging
2. cautious
3. protective

Infant day care outside the home by strangers is common in countries such as _______(1), where it is subsidized by the ________(2), but scarce in countries such as __________(3), where it is not subsidized. Infant day care programs include ________(4) day care, in which children of various ages are cared for in a paid caregiver's home, and ____________(5) day care, in which several paid providers care for children in a designated place.

1. France, Israel, and Sweden
2. government
3. India, Ethiopia, and most Latin American nations
4. family
5. center

Early day care may be detrimental when the mother is ________(1) and the infant spends more than ________(2) hours each week in a poor-quality program. Research suggests that boys are affected ________(more than/ less than/ the same as) girls are. Out-of-home day care is better than in-home care if an infant's family does not provide adequate _________(4) and ________(5).

1. insensitive
2. 20
3. more than
4. stimulation
5. attention

(Table 4.6) Researchers have identified five factors that are essential to high-quality day care:
a. __________________________
b. __________________________
c. __________________________
d. __________________________
e. __________________________

a. adequate attention to each infant
b. encouragement of sensorimotor and language development
c. attention to health and safety
d. well-trained and professional caregivers
e. warm and responsive caregivers

Attachment style: Secure (type B)
Characteristic behavior of infant: (1)
Characteristics of Parents: (2)

1. infant plays happily and comfortably, sometimes glancing at Mom for reassurance.
2. Parent is sensitive and responsive to infant's needs; synchrony is high, parents are not stressed; parents have a working model from their own parents.

Attachment style: Insecure-avoidant (Type A)
Characteristic behavior of infant: (1)
Characteristics of parents: (2)

1. they have less confidence and play independently without maintaining contact with the parent.
2. are neglectful, stressed, intrusive, and controlling, and the father is an active alcoholic.

Attachment style: insecure-resistant/ ambivalent (type C)
Characteristic Behavior of infant: (1)
Characteristics of parents: (2)

1. child is unwilling to leave the parent's lap
2. parent is abusive and depressed

Attachment style: disorganized
Characteristic behavior of infant: (1)
Characteristics of parents: (2)

1. this type has elements of the other types; the infant shifts between hitting and kissing the parent, from staring to crying. The most troubled children are classified as type D.
2. The parent is abusive, paranoid, and stressed. The mother is an active alcoholic.

Although the first two years are important, early ______(1) and ______(2) development is influenced by the ______(3) behavior, the quality of _______(4), patterns within the child's _______(5), and traits that are _________(6).

1. emotional
2. social
3. parents'
4. day care
5. culture
6. inborn

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