Biology 1408 Exam 2 Review

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As you exercise harder and harder, you reach a point where your muscle cells use more oxygen than your bloodstream can provide. At this point, ______.


A) Your muscles are working anaerobically
B) You are past your aerobic capacity
C) Your muscle cells start producing lactic acid
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

D) All of the above

Aerobic means with ______.

A) Oxygen
B) Carbon dioxide
C) ATP
D) Light
E) Carbohydrate

A) Oxygen

Humans use the calories they obtain from ______ as their source of energy.

A) Food
B) Water
C) Sunlight
D) Minerals
E) Carbon Dioxide

A) Food

Photosynthesis is carried out by ______.

A) Chloroplasts
B) Peroxisomes
C) The Nucleus
D) Mitochondria
E) Ribosomes

A) Chloroplasts

Photosynthetic organisms are ______.

A) Heterotrophs
B) Fungi
C) Consumers
D) Producers
E) Decomposers

D) Producers

A horse eating some hay is an example of ______.

A) An autotroph eating a producer
B) An autotroph eating a consumer
C) A consumer eating a producer
D) A consumer eating a heterotroph
E) A producer eating a heterotroph

C) A consumer eating a producer.

The waste products of cellular respiration include ______.

A) Water
B) Carbon Dioxide
C) Glucose
D) Water and Carbon Dioxide
E) Water and Glucose

D) Water and Carbon Dioxide

Plant cells ______.

A) Do not need chloroplasts because their mitochondria meet their energy needs
B) Have chloroplasts and mitochondria
C) Use carbon dioxide but do not use oxygen
D) Do not need mitochondria because their chloroplasts meet their energy needs
E) Do not respire

B) Have chloroplasts and mitochondria

The ultimate source of the energy in food is ______.

A) The sun
B) Producers
C) ATP
D) Consumers
E) Plants

A) The sun

What compound directly provides energy for cellular work?

A) C6H12O6
B) Rubisco
C) ATP
D) DNA
E) Fat

C) ATP

Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ______.

A) Cell wall and contractile vacuole
B) Cell wall and central vacuole
C) Nucleus and cell wall
D) Nucleus and contractile vacuole
E) Cell wall and ribosomes

B) Cell wall and central vacuole

Respiration ______, and cellular respiration ______.

A) Produces ATP . . . is gas exchange
B) Is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
C) Produces glucose . . . produces oxygen
D) Uses glucose . . . produces glucose
E) Produces glucose . . . is gas exchange

B) Is gas exchange . . . produces ATP

Which of these equations describes aerobic cellular respiration?

A) Glucose → Lactic Acid + Energy
B) Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water → Glucose + Oxygen + Water
C) Glucose → Ethyl Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy
D) Glucose + Lactose → Galactose + Water
E) Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

E) Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

The energy released from glucose by the process of cellular respiration is in the form of ______.

A) ATP and heat
B) Oxygen only
C) Heat only
D) ATP and NADH
E) ATP only

A) ATP and heat

During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose is ______.

A) Transferred to starch
B) Used to manufacture glucose by exergonic reactions
C) Released all at once
D) Carried by electrons
E) None of the above

D) Carried by electrons

During redox reactions, ______.

A) The loss of electrons from one substance is called reduction
B) A substance that gains electrons is said to be oxidized
C) Electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance
D) Protons from one molecule replace the electrons lost from another molecule
E) None of the above

C) Electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.

During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following is a true statement about this process?

A) The electrons move from carriers that have more affinity for them to carriers that have less affinity for them.

B) Molecular oxygen is eventually oxidized by the electrons to form water.

C) The electrons release large amounts of energy each time they are transferred from one carrier to another.

D) The carrier molecules are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

E) None of the statements are true.

E) None of the statements are true.

Which of the following statements is completely true?

A) Oxygen is a product of cellular respiration; carbon dioxide is a product of photosynthesis.
B) Oxidation is the gain of electrons; reduction is the loss of electrons.
C) Lactic acid is a product of aerobic respiration; ethyl alcohol is a product of fermentation.
D) Oxidation is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons.
E) Glucose is a product of aerobic respiration; lactic acid is a product of anaerobic respiration.

D) Oxidation is the loss of electrons; reduction is the gain of electrons.

The first electron acceptor of cellular respiration is ______.

A) CO2
B) O2
C) ATP
D) NAD+
E) H2O

D) NAD+

The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is ______.

A) Carbon dioxide
B) ATP
C) Oxygen
D) Lactic acid
E) NAD+

C) Oxygen

Metabolism refers to ______.

A) Processes that convert simpler compounds to more complex compounds
B) The rate at which cells use energy
C) The rate at which cells release heat
D) Processes that convert complex compounds to simpler compounds
E) All chemical processes that occur within cells

E) All chemical processes that occur within cells

A product of glycolysis is ______.

A) Lactic Acid
B) Ethyl Alcohol
C) NAD+
D) O2
E) Pyruvic Acid

E) Pyruvic Acid

Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?

A) Cytosol
B) ER
C) Within the fluid just inside the inner mitochondrial membrane
D) Between the inner and outer mitochondrial membrane
E) Along the outside of the outer mitochondrial membrane

A) Cytosol

Which of the following is the correct sequence of stages in cellular respiration?

A) Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
B) Citric acid cycle, glycolysis, electron transport chain
C) Citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, glycolysis
D) Electron transport chain, glycolysis, citric acid cycle
E) Electron transport chain, citric acid cycle, glycolysis

A) Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain

Which one of the following is true?

A) An enzyme's function depends on its three-dimensional shape.
B) Enzymes work generally on a broad range of substrates.
C) Enzymes are used up in chemical reactions.
D) Enzymes emerge changed from the reactions they catalyze.
E) An enzyme binds to its substrate at the enzyme's substrate site.

A) An enzyme's function depends on its three-dimensional shape.

Substances that plug up an enzyme's active site are ______.

A) Enzyme substrates
B) Enzyme inhibitors
C) Reagents
D) Reactants
E) Enzyme products

B) Enzyme inhibitors

Which one of the following is most similar to the mechanism of an enzyme inhibitor?

A) Keeping someone from parking by parking in their designated spot
B) Driving the wrong way on a one-way street
C) Forgetting to put a cap back on a pen
D) Combining new ingredients in a new recipe
E) Changing the tires on a car

A) Keeping someone from parking by parking in their designated spot

Diffusion is an example of ______.

A) Phagocytosis
B) Exocytosis
C) Active Transport
D) Endocytosis
E) Passive Transport

E) Passive Transport

Diffusion ______.

A) Is the result of the potential energy of atoms
B) Is driven by an input of cellular energy
C) Requires an input of cellular energy
D) Occurs when particles spread from areas where they are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated
E) Proceeds until equilibrium is reached

E) Proceeds until equilibrium is reached

Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ______ and moves a substance ______ its concentration gradient.

A) Energy and transport proteins . . . down
B) Energy . . . down
C) Transport proteins . . . down
D) Energy and transport proteins . . . against
E) Transport proteins . . . against

C) Transport proteins . . . down

Osmosis can be defined as ______.

A) The diffusion of water
B) The diffusion of nonpolar molecules
C) Active transport
D) The diffusion of a solute
E) Endocytosis

A) The diffusion of water

A balloon permeable to water but not to glucose contains a 10% glucose solution. A beaker contains a 5% glucose solution. Which of the following is true?

A) The solution in the beaker is hypertonic relative to the solution in the balloon.
B) The solution in the balloon is isotonic; the solution in the beaker is hypertonic.
C) When placed in the beaker, the balloon will lose water by osmosis.
D) When placed in the beaker, the balloon will experience neither a net gain nor a net loss of water.
E) The solution in the balloon is hypertonic relative to the solution in the beaker.

E) The solution in the balloon is hypertonic relative to the solution in the beaker.

When two solutions that differ in solute concentration are placed on either side of a selectively permeable membrane, and osmosis is allowed to take place, the water will ______.

A) Exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration
B) Exhibit a net movement to the side with higher water concentration
C) Exhibit a net movement to the side with lower solute concentration
D) Exhibit an equal movement in both directions across the membrane
E) Not cross the membrane

A) Exhibit a net movement to the side with lower water concentration

A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is ______.

A) Isotonic to its environment
B) Hypertonic to its environment
C) Hypotonic to its environment
D) Metabolically inactive
E) Dead

A) Isotonic to its environment

Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment ______.

A) Is isotonic to the protozoan
B) Is hypotonic to the protozoan
C) Is hypertonic to the protozoan
D) Contains a higher concentration of solutes than the protozoan
E) None of the above

B) Is hypotonic to the protozoan

You are adrift in the Atlantic Ocean and, being thirsty, drink the surrounding seawater. As a result, ______.

A) You quench your thirst
B) Your cells lyse, due to the excessive intake of salt
C) Your cells become turgid
D) You dehydrate yourself
E) None of the above

D) You dehydrate yourself

If placed in tap water, an animal cell will undergo lysis, whereas a plant cell will not. What accounts for this difference?

A) Expulsion of water by the plant cell's central vacuole
B) The relative impermeability of the plant cell membrane to water
C) The relative impermeability of the plant cell wall to water
D) The fact that plant cells are isotonic to tap water
E) The relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall

E) The relative inelasticity and strength of the plant cell wall

In a hypotonic solution, a plant cell will ______.

A) Undergo plasmolysis
B) Pump out excess water
C) Become flaccid
D) Burst
E) Become turgid

E) Become turgid

Cells with a higher concentration of ions than the surrounding medium tend to ______.

A) Stay about the same size and shape
B) Expand
C) Shrink
D) Undergo Mitosis
E) Merge with other cells

B) Expand

Which of the following processes could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings?

A) Active transport
B) Facilitated diffusion
C) Diffusion
D) Osmosis
E) Plasmolysis

A) Active transport

Active transport ______.

A) Uses ATP as an energy source
B) Can move solutes against their concentration gradient
C) Requires the cell to expend energy
D) Can involve the transport of ions
E) All of the above

E) All of the above

______ is to eating as ______ is to drinking.

A) Active transport . . . diffusion
B) Cell pumping . . . endocytosis
C) Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis
D) Diffusion . . . receptor-mediated endocytosis
E) Endocytosis . . . exocytosis

C) Phagocytosis . . . pinocytosis

Certain cells that line the stomach synthesize a digestive enzyme and secrete it into the stomach. This enzyme is a protein. Which of the following processes could be responsible for its secretion?

A) Endocytosis
B) Exocytosis
C) Diffusion
D) Pinocytosis
E) Passive Transport

B) Exocytosis

The act of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is ______.

A) Osmosis
B) Diffusion
C) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
D) Pinocytosis
E) Phagocytosis

E) Phagocytosis

Imagine that cell signaling using a signal transduction pathway is like a person answering the door after hearing the doorbell ring. Which step in this figure is like the button for the doorbell?

A) Epinephrine (the signal)
B) The receptor protein (reception)
C) The three intracellular steps (transduction)
D) The hydrolysis of glycogen (response)
E) The ability of your muscles to do more work

B) The receptor protein (reception)

Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a cell is called ______.

A) Signal transduction
B) Inhibition
C) Competition
D) Self-recognition
E) Selective permeability

A) Signal transduction

Which of the following is most like a signal transduction pathway in a cell?

A) A person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell
B) A person parking a car in a parking space
C) Catching fish using a fishing pole
D) A person mixing together water, milk, and cake mix to make a cake
E) A physician removing a thorn from a person's foot

A) A person answering the door to their home after someone rings the doorbell

If a person eats one hard-boiled egg and digests the egg fully, cellular respiration will convert most of this energy into ______.

A) ATP
B) Heat
C) Carbon Dioxide
D) Water
E) Sugars

B) Heat

The amount of dietary Calories in one hard-boiled egg could raise the temperature of ______.

A) 10 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius
B) 75 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius
C) 750 grams of water by 1 degree Celsius
D) 1,000 grams of water by 75 degrees Celsius
E) 7,500 grams of water by 50 degrees Celsius

D) 1,000 grams of water by 75 degrees Celsius

Molecules that come from the food we eat provide energy for the amazing work that goes on inside of our cells. This energy, stored inside of our food, is a form of ______.

A) Potential energy called chemical energy
B) Potential energy called entropy
C) Kinetic energy called entropy
D) Kinetic energy called heat
E) Electrical energy called heat

A) Potential energy called chemical energy

You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it must be a ______ cell.

A) Prokaryotic
B) Liver
C) Animal
D) Bacterial
E) Plant

E) Plant

Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?

A) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
B) Mitochondrion
C) Ribosome
D) Chloroplast
E) Nucleolus

D) Chloroplast

______ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.

A) Steroids
B) Triglycerides
C) Prostaglandins
D) Mosaics
E) Phospholipids

E) Phospholipids

When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.

A) Are capable of violating the second law of thermodynamics
B) Have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
C) Have hydrophilic fatty acid tails that are attracted to water and hydrophobic phosphate groups that avoid water
D) Have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to their hydrophobic fatty acid tails
E) Do not spontaneously form membranes when mixed with water

B) Have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water

The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.

A) Phospholipids and proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
B) Phospholipids but not proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
C) Proteins but not phospholipids to drift about in the plane of the membrane
D) Carbohydrates to drift into and out of the membrane structure
E) Nucleotides to drift into and out of the membrane structure

A) Phospholipids and proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane

The extracellular coats of cells ______.

A) Protect and support cells and facilitate interactions between adjacent cells
B) Provide avenues for the exchange of DNA
C) Are warehouses for the storage of extra lipids and carbohydrates
D) Are primarily sites of dead matter and waste materials
E) None of the above

A) Protect and support cells and facilitate interactions between adjacent cells

Cells are often bound to the extracellular matrix by ______ in the plasma membrane.

A) Carbohydrates
B) Cholesterol Molecules
C) Phospholipids
D) Proteins
E) Ribosomes

D) Proteins

______ code for the structure of proteins.

A) Lysosomes
B) Genes
C) Phospholipids
D) Ribosomes
E) Carbohydrates

B) Genes

The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.

A) A single membrane
B) Genes
C) DNA
D) A double membrane
E) Carbohydrates

D) A double membrane

The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ______.

A) Nucleoli
B) Nucleoplasm
C) Chromatin
D) Ribosomes
E) ATP

C) Chromatin

Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes.

A) 36
B) 46
C) 2
D) 23
E) 18

B) 46

What name is given to the organelle that manufactures the components of ribosomes?

A) Chromosome
B) Nucleus
C) Cytoplasm
D) Endoplasmic Reticulum
E) Nucleolus

E) Nucleolus

Which of the following organelles is NOT defined by a membrane?

A) Chloroplast
B) Ribosome
C) Endoplasmic Reticulum
D) Golgi Apparatus
E) Lysosome

B) Ribosome

Where does protein synthesis take place?

A) In the nucleolus
B) On smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C) On ribosomes
D) In the nucleus
E) In the Golgi apparatus

C) On ribosomes

Many antibiotic drugs are effective against bacteria without hurting humans because the antibiotics rely upon differences in the structure of human and bacterial ______.

A) Chromosomes
B) Mitochondria
C) Lysosomes
D) Carbohydrates
E) Ribosomes

E) Ribosomes

Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______.

A) mRNA
B) rER
C) DNA
D) sER
E) ATP

A) mRNA

The endomembrane system includes ______.

A) Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, and the Endoplasmic Reticulum
B) Golgi apparatus, Ribosomes, Vacuoles, and the Endoplasmic Reticulum
C) Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Ribosomes, and the Endoplasmic Reticulum
D) Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, and the Endoplasmic Reticulum
E) Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, and Ribosomes

D) Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles, and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

A hormone destined for secretion from the cell would be manufactured by ribosomes _____.

A) Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
B) Attached to the Golgi apparatus
C) Attached to the plasma membrane
D) Suspended in the cytosol
E) Suspended in the nucleoplasm

A) Attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?

A) Lysosomes
B) Ribosomes
C) Transport Vesicles
D) Peroxisomes
E) Nucleosomes

C) Transport Vesicles

Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.

A) Brain
B) Lung
C) Liver
D) Intestinal
E) Muscle

C) Liver

Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ______.

A) Lipid synthesis, Steroid Synthesis, Protein Synthesis, and Drug Detoxification
B) Steroid Synthesis, Protein Synthesis, and Drug Detoxification
C) Lipid Synthesis, Protein Synthesis, and Drug Detoxification
D) Lipid Synthesis, Steroid Synthesis, and Drug Detoxification
E) Lipid Synthesis, Steroid Synthesis, and Protein Synthesis

D) Lipid Synthesis, Steroid Synthesis, and Drug Detoxification

Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?

A) Cellular Respiration
B) Intracellular Digestion
C) Protein Modification
D) Drug Detoxification
E) Protein Synthesis

C) Protein Modification

Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping department of a company?

A) The Golgi apparatus
B) The endoplasmic reticulum
C) Mitochondria
D) Chloroplasts
E) The nucleolus

A) The Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes are responsible for ______.

A) Lipid Synthesis
B) Cellular Respiration
C) Photosynthesis
D) Intracellular Digestion
E) Protein Synthesis

D) Intracellular Digestion

As a ______ is to a cell, a(n) ______ is to a multicellular organism.

A) Lysosome . . . digestive system
B) Cell junction . . . arm or leg
C) Cytoskeleton . . . brain
D) Nucleus . . . respiratory system
E) Ribosome . . . digestive system

A) Lysosome . . . digestive system

If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.

A) Shrivel
B) Divide into two cells
C) Digest itself
D) Need to manufacture more lysosomes
E) Become flaccid

C) Digest itself

Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.

A) The Golgi apparatus
B) Lysosomes
C) Mitochondria
D) The endoplasmic reticulum
E) The plasma membrane

B) Lysosomes

Vacuoles are ______.

A) Composed of Protein
B) Membranous Sacs
C) Manufactured by Ribosomes
D) Composed of Microtubules
E) Found Only in Plant Cells

B) Membranous Sacs

A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.

A) In a marine environment
B) Within the cells of another organism
C) In fresh water
D) On land
E) In ice

C) In fresh water

In plant cells, ______ contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.

A) Mitochondria
B) Chloroplasts
C) Lysosomes
D) Central Vacuoles
E) Ribosomes

D) Central Vacuoles

What are the three cycles of Cellular Respiration?

1) Glycolysis
2) Citric Acid Cycle
3) Electron Transport

What are the differences & similarities between Alcohol Fermentation & Lactate Fermentation?

Alcohol Fermentation:
1) Final Product is Ethanol
2) Acetaldehyde Formation
3) Produces CO2
4) Produces 2 Molecules of ATP
5) Goes through Glycolysis

Lactic Acid Fermentation:
1) Final Product is Lactate
2) No Acetaldehyde Formation
3) Doesn't Produce CO2
4) Produces 2 Molecules of ATP
5) Goes through Glycolysis

What are Autotrophs? What are Heterotrophs?

Autotrophs are Producers or "Self-Feeders" and produce their own energy through photosynthesis.
Heterotrophs are Consumers or "Other-Feeders" and must consumer other plants and animals to acquire energy.

What are the primary functions of the Membrane?

1) Attachment to the Cytoskeleton & Extracellular Matrix
2) Cell Signaling
3) Enzymatic Activity
4) Transport
5) Intercellular Joining
6) Cell-Cell Recognition

What are the differences between Plant and Animal cells?

Plant Cells:
1) Chloroplasts
3) Cell Wall
2) Different Shape
4) No Flagellum
5) Chloroplast
6) Central Vacuole

Animal Cells:
1) Centriole
2) Lysosome
3) No Cell Wall
4) Flagellum
5) Round Shape
6) No Chloroplasts

How many molecules of ATP are produced during each of the 3 stages of Cellular Respiration?

Glycolysis produces 2 molecules of ATP
Citric Acid Cycle produces 2 molecules of ATP
Electron Transport produces 32-34 molecules of ATP
Cellular Respiration produces a total of 36-38 molecules of ATP

What is Hypotonic, Hypertonic and Isotonic?

Hypotonic is when there is a lower concentration of solute & higher concentration of water.
Hypertonic is when there is a higher concentration of solute & lower concentration of water.
Isotonic is when there is an equal concentration of solute & water.

What are the differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic Cells:
1) Smaller
2) Simpler
3) Most do not have organelles
4) Found in bacteria & archaea

Eukaryotic Cells:
1) Larger
2) More Complex
3) Have organelles
4) Found in protists, plants, * fungi & animals

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