Biology LAP 10

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STUDY!!!!!

taxonomy

science of naming and classifying

how are species grouped?

according to biological characteristics

species have a ____ part name

two

Aristotle

a Greek philosopher
plants by structure
animals by habitat

John Ray

long detailed Latin names

Dianthus caryophyllus

the carnation

Linnaeous

structure
binomial nomenclature
taxons

Binomial Nomenclature

a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name

writing a binomial nomenclature

Latin
Genus
-1st word
-CAPITALIZED
Descriptive term
-2nd word
-not capitalized
subspecies
-3rd word
-homo sapiens sapiens

classifications

kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species

binomial nomenclature

name is underlined when written
italicized in prnt
abbreviate using 1st letter of genus
ex.) C. lupus
Canis lupus

6 Modern Kingdoms

Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plant
Animal

ailurus fulgens

red panda

classification criteria

evolutionary relationships
anatomy
physiology
genetics
life history
embryology
biochemistry

Phylogenetic Systematics

current trend in classification

"Phylogeny"

how living and extinct organisms are related to each other

GOAL to evolutionary classification

to group species according to evolutionary descent

groups are called ______

clades

Three Domains of Life

archaea
bacteria
eukarya

Domain bacteria

prokaryotic
unicellular
peptidoglycan
heterotrophic or autotrophic

Domain Archaea

prokaryotic
unicellular
lack peptidoglycan
unique membrane lipids
extreme environments
DNA sequences resemble those of eukaryotes

Protists

eukaryotes
unicellular
heterotroph or autotroph

plants

autotrophs (contain chloroplasts)
eukaryotes
multicellular
non-motile

fungi

heterotrophic (absorptive)
eukaryotic
multi-cellular
non-motile

animals

hetertroph (ingestive)
eukaryote
multi-cellular

archaebacteria

all prkaryotes

thermophile

intense heat

halophile

high salt concentration

methanogens

create methane

eubacteria

diverse
nearly every ecological niche

beneficial roles or eubacteria

1. recycle C,N,S, & P
2. E. Coli produce vitamin K
3. digestion of cellulose in cattle
4.biotechnology- insulin, clotting factor
5. clean up toxic wastes and oil spills
6. manufacture of yogurt, cheese, vinegar

bacteria

binary fission
heterotrophic or autotrophic

binary fission

reproduction by splitting in half

3 main shapes of bacteria

spheres, rods, spirals

3 main colonies of bacteria

chains, clusters, pairs

bacterial growth

moisture
wide range of temperature
darkness

atmospheric conditions

obligate aerobes (must have O2)
obligate anaerobes (killed by O2)
facultative anaerobes (can live in O2 rich or anaerobic conditions)

3 kinds of protist

algal
fungal
protozoans

importance of Algal and Fungal protista

basis of food chain
diatomaceous earth- toothpaste
red tide

Algal protists

eugenoids, Golden Algae, dinoflagellates

Fungal Protists

slime molds

Protozoan Protists

ciliates
flagellates
sporozoans
sarcodines

Protozoan importance

disease
-african sleeping sickness
-malaria
-dysentery

niches of fungi

saprobes - decompose
-mushrooms
parasites - harm host
-athlete's foot
-ringworm

benefits of fungi

bread, cheese, food
drugs & enzymes
decomposers

2 types or animals

invertebrates - no backbone
vertebrates - have a backbone

invertebrates

95% of all animals

vertebrates

chordates
notochord - generally becomes backbone
ex) fish, reptiles, birds, mammals

fish

aquatic vertebrates
gills
ectothermic
fins and scales

amphibians

larva have gills
adults have lungs
ectothermic

reptiles

dry scaly skin
ectothermic
lay shelled eggs

birds

feathers and wings
endothermic
light skeleton
lay shelled eggs

mammals

hair or fur
endothermic
produce milk

noncellular

viruses
-herpes
-HIV
-ebola

urus horribilis

grizzly bear

canis familiaris

dog

felis catus

cat

panthera leo

lion

canis lupus

wolf

urus americanus

black bear

panthera tigris

tiger

homo sapiens

humans

panthera panthera

panther

ailuropoda melanoleuca

panda

canis latrans

coyote

acinonyx jubatus

cheetah

haliaeetus leucocephalus

bald eagle

felis concolor

mountain lion

cavia porcellus

guinea pig

bos taurus

cattle

classifying humans into taxons

animalia
chordata
mammalia
carnivora
ursidae
ursus
ursus arctos

monophyletic group

includes a single common ancestor and all of its descendants

cladogram

links groups of organisms by showing how evolutionary lines branched off from common ancestors

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