Chapter 6: Bone Tissue

63 terms by Heath22

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red bone marrow

the connective tissue within certain bones that produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

hemopoiesis

the process of making red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the red bone marrow

yellow bone marrow

contains adipose cells that store triglycerides as a reserve of potential chemical energy

diaphysis

the shaft, or main body, of a long bone

epiphysis

the proximal or distal end of a long bone

metaphysis

the region between the diaphysis and epiphyses that contains the growth plates

epiphyseal plate

a layer of hyaline cartilage in growing bone located in each metaphysis that allows the diaphysis of the bone to grow in length

epiphyseal line

the bony structure that results when the cartilage in the epiphyseal (growth) plate is replaced by bone at about ages 18-21, and bone has stopped growing in length

articular cartilage

a thin, shock-absorbing layer of hyaline cartilage covering the part of the epiphysis where the bone forms an articulation with another bone

periosteum

a covering that surrounds the external bone surface composed of an outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue and an inner osteogenic layer

medullary cavity

a hollow, cylindrical space within the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow in adults

endosteum

a thin membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity

osseous tissue

a hard connective tissue containing an abundant mineralized extracellular matrix that surrounds widely separated cells

hydroxyapatite

a crystallized mineral salt in bone matrix that forms when calcium phosphate combines with calcium hydroxide

calcification

the process where mineral salts are deposited in the collagen fiber framework, hardening the bone matrix

tensile strength

this describes how the collagen fibers of bone enable it to resist being stretched or torn apart

osteogenic cell

an unspecialized stem cell that is the only bone cell that can undergo cell division; the resulting cells develop into osteoblasts

osteoblast

a bone-building cell that synthesizes and secretes collagen fibers needed to form the matrix of bone tissue

osteocyte

a mature bone cell that maintains its regular metabolism, such as nutrient and waste exchange with blood

osteoclast

a huge cell that releases enzymes and acids that digest the protein and mineral components of bone matrix

compact bone tissue

the strongest form of bone tissue that makes up the bulk of the diaphysis of a long bone

central canal

a space running longitudinally through an osteon of bone, containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves

concentric lamellae

rings of calcified extracellular matrix layered around the central canal of an osteon

lacuna

a small space between concentric lamellae which contains an osteocyte

canaliculi

the tiny channels filled with extracellular fluid radiating in all directions from the lacunae, connecting them to each another and to the central canals

osteon

a repeating structural unit of bone consisting of a central canal, concentric lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi; also called a haversian system

interstitial lamella

an area between osteons that is a remnant of older osteons that have been partially destroyed during bone rebuilding or growth

spongy bone tissue

this consists of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae, with spaces in-between filled with red bone marrow

trabeculae

the irregular latticework of thin bony plates in spongy bone tissue

periosteal artery

this enters the diaphysis of a bone through a perforating (Volkmann's) canal and delivers blood to the periosteum and outer part of compact bone tissue

nutrient artery

this passes through a foramen in compact bone, and enters the medullary cavity, where it divides into proximal and distal branches that supply both the inner compact bone tissue of the diaphysis and the spongy bone tissue and red marrow of the epiphyseal plates

ossification

the process by which bone forms during embryo and fetal development, growth from infancy through adulthood, remodeling, and fracture repair; also called osteogenesis

intramembranous ossification

the process of bone formation in the flat bones of the skull and mandible, where bone forms directly within mesenchyme arranged in sheetlike layers that resemble membranes

endochondral ossification

the most common bone formation process, which involves the replacement of hyaline cartilage (developed by mesenchyme) with bone

ossification center

the cluster of mesenchymal cells that differentiate into osteoblasts at the site where bone will develop during intramembranous ossification

cartilage model

the hyaline cartilage that takes the shape of the future bone during endochondral ossification

perichondrium

an outer covering that develops around the cartilage model during ossification

interstitial growth

growth from within a bone during endochondral ossification, resulting in an increase in the bone's length

appositional growth

growth at the outer surface of a bone during endochondral ossification, resulting in an increase in the bone's thickness

primary ossification center

during endochondral ossificaiton, a region near the middle of the cartilage model where bone tissue replaces most of the disintegrating calcified cartilage

secondary ossification center

this develops in the epiphyses of bone during endochondral ossification

bone remodeling

the ongoing replacement of old bone tissue with new bone tissue

bone resorption

the breakdown of bone extracellular matrix by osteoclasts that is part of the normal development, maintenance, and repair of bone tissue

bone deposition

the addition of minerals and collagen fibers to bone by osteoblasts

open fracture

describes when the broken ends of a bone protrude through the skin; also referred to as "compound"

closed fracture

describes when the broken ends of a bone do not break the skin; also referred to as "simple"

comminuted fracture

describes when a bone is splintered, crushed, or broken into pieces, and smaller bone fragments are found in-between the broken ends

greenstick fracture

describes a partial fracture in children where one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends

impacted fracture

describes when one end of a fractured bone is forcefully driven into the interior of the other end

Pott's fracture

a fracture of the distal end of the fibula, resulting in a serious ankle injury

Colles' fracture

a fracture of the distal end of the radius, in which the distal fragment is displaced posteriorly

stress fracture

a series of microscopic fissures in bone that forms without any evidence of injury to other tissues, and results from repeated, strenuous activities such as running or jumping

fracture hematoma

a mass of clotted blood that forms around the site of a bone fracture within 6-8 hours after the injury

fibrocartilaginous callus

a mass of repair tissue consisting of collagen fibers and cartilage that bridges the broken ends of a bone within 3 weeks after the injury

bony callus

this forms during fracture repair when the fibrocartilage is converted to spongy bone; lasts 3-4 months

closed reduction

describes when the fractured ends of a bone are brought into alignment by manual manipulation, and the skin remains intact

open reduction

describes when the fractured ends of a bone are brought into alignment by a surgical procedure in which internal fixation devices such as screws, plates, pins, rods, and wires are used

parathyroid hormone

the most important regulator of calcium ion exchange that increases blood calcium level

calcitriol

the active form of vitamin D (secreted by the kidneys) that promotes absorption of calcium from foods in the GI tract into the blood, helping to further increase blood calcium level

calcitonin

a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that decreases blood calcium level by inhibiting osteoclast activity

demineralization

a normal effect of aging on bone tissue involving the loss of calcium and other minerals from the extracellular matrix, which reduces bone mass

osteoporosis

an age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased sensitivity to fractures, often as a result of decreased levels of estrogen

rickets

a disease of children that results from inadequate calcification of the extracellular bone matrix, usually due to a vitamin D deficiency; growing bones become "soft" or rubbery and are easily deformed

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