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Throughout the 1920s, the performance of the United States economy

D. saw nearly uninterrupted prosperity coupled with severe inequalities.

During the 1920s, airplanes

E. were largely a source of entertainment.

During the 1920s, the trend toward industrial consolidation

A. was most pronounced in the large-scale, mass-production sector.

In the 1920s, "welfare capitalism"

B. was a paternalistic approach used by corporate leaders on their workers.

In the workplace, the "open shop" meant

A. no worker was required to join a union.

In the 1920s, the idea of agricultural "parity" was

B. to ensure farmers would at least financially break even.

The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921

B. provided federal funds for child health-care programs.

The National Origins Act of 1924

A. entirely banned immigration from East Asia to the United States.

The Scopes trial of 1925 was a legal battle between

E. creationism and evolution.

In the 1920s, Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon succeeded in

A. cutting taxes on corporate profits and personal incomes.
B. eliminating half of the federal debt.
C. trimming dramatically the federal budget.
D. both eliminating half of the federal debt, and dramatically trimming the federal budget.
E. All these answers are correct.

To Herbert Hoover, "associationalism" meant

E. the creation of national organizations of businessmen in particular industries.

On October 29, 1929, the American stock market

B. lost all the gains of the previous year.

All of the following factors were causes of the Great Depression EXCEPT

D. conservative banking policies that restricted the availability of loans.

In 1931, the severity of the depression increased when the Federal Reserve Board

E. raised interest rates.

In the 1930s, the "Dust Bowl"

A. was created by the national economic collapse.

The 1931 Scottsboro court case saw

A. black teenagers accused of rape by two white women.

In response to the Great Depression, many Mexican Americans

B. left the United States entirely.

In the 1930s, the director Frank Capra typically displayed in his films

A. a populist admiration for ordinary Americans.

The "Abraham Lincoln Brigade" is to be associated with

B. the Spanish Civil War.

In 1939, after the Soviet Union signed a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany, the American Communist Party

D. lost a significant portion of its membership.

President Herbert Hoover responded to the onset of the Great Depression by

C. urging voluntary cooperation from business leaders.

The Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930

E. None of these answers is correct.

The Hoover administration addressed the economic situation of American farmers with

A. the Agricultural Marketing Act.

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)

A. was to provide federal loans to troubled banks and businesses.
B. was created in the last year of Herbert Hoover's administration.
C. included a $1.5 billion public works budget.
D. both included a $1.5 billion public works budget, and was to provide federal loans to troubled banks and businesses.
E. All these answers are correct.

All of the following statements regarding the 1932 "Bonus Army" are true EXCEPT

E. the "Army" demanded Congress create relief programs for World War I veterans.

The federal government's response to the "Bonus Army" included

A. the use of six tanks to rout the veterans from Washington.
B. General Douglas MacArthur exceeding his orders to remove the veterans.
C. the injuring of over 100 marchers.
D. both the use of six tanks to rout the veterans from Washington, and the injuring of over 100 marchers.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1932, Franklin Roosevelt's promise of a "new deal" for America included a commitment to

E. None of these answers is correct.

Between his election in 1932 and the inauguration in 1933, Franklin Roosevelt

D. refused to make any agreements with the outgoing president, Herbert Hoover.

In 1933, two days after he took office, President Franklin Roosevelt

E. closed all banks.

The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 established

B. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

To oversee activities in the stock market, in 1934, Congress established the

A. Securities and Exchange Commission.

The New Deal program which created utility cooperatives for rural Americans was the

C. Rural Electrification Administration.

The Tennessee Valley Authority of 1933

E. was an experiment in regional planning by the federal government.

The Civilian Conservation Corps

B. put the unemployed to work on rural and wilderness areas.

In 1934, strong criticism of the New Deal came from

A. the political far right.
B. the political far left.
C. dissident populists such as Huey Long.
D. both the political far right and the political far left.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1934, Dr. Francis Townsend attracted widespread national support for a plan that

C. helped pave the way for the Social Security system.

Much of Father Charles Coughlin's outspoken criticism of the Roosevelt administration revolved around the issue of

D. changing the banking and currency system.

In 1935, Senator Huey Long

B. had a strong record of progressive accomplishments.

The "Second New Deal" was launched in response to

A. the growth of popular protests across the nation.
B. the persistence of the Great Depression.
C. the coming presidential election of 1936.
D. both the persistence of the Great Depression and the coming presidential election of 1936.
E. All these answers are correct.

The Social Security Act of 1935

B. did not begin making payments to participants for years.

In the 1930s, the New Deal generally gave

D. work relief to men and cash assistance to women.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt's call to expand the Supreme Court came from

E. his desire to change the ideological balance of the Court.

By the end of 1938,

E. the New Deal had largely come to an end.

The most influential advocate for African Americans in the Roosevelt administration was

D. Eleanor Roosevelt

African Americans employed by New Deal relief programs

B. were among the first to be released when funds ran out.

One long-term consequence of the New Deal was

C. the national government assumed a responsibility for the basic welfare of the people.

The Washington Conference of 1921

A. attempted to prevent a global naval arms race.

The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928

C. was signed with wide international acclaim.

The Dawes Plan of 1924

A. called for the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments.
B. was designed to help England and France make their debt payments to the United States.
C. called for Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.
D. called for both the United States to lend money to Germany to meet its reparation payments, and Britain and France to reduce the amount of German reparation payments.
E. All these answers are correct.

Which of the following statements about the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany is FALSE?

E. Upon coming to power in 1933, Hitler called his new government "the Weimar Republic."

In the 1930s, President Franklin Roosevelt carried out international policies which

C. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.

President Franklin Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy"

A. expanded initiatives begun under Herbert Hoover.

The Neutrality Act of 1935

E. included a mandatory arms embargo of both sides during any military conflict.

In 1937, President Franklin Roosevelt's "quarantine" speech

D. received a decidedly hostile response by the American people

In 1938, the Anschluss

A. proclaimed a union between Germany and Austria.

The Munich conference of 1938 was precipitated by a crisis over

E. Czechoslovakia.

The Munich agreement of 1938

D. was supported by President Franklin Roosevelt.

In 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt's decision to give fifty American destroyers to England

B. circumvented the cash-and-carry provision of the Neutrality Acts.

The America First Committee

A. was a powerful lobby against U.S. involvement in the war.

In 1940, the "lend-lease" plan

A. allowed the U.S. to loan weapons to England to be returned when the war was over.

In 1941, the Atlantic Charter

D. saw the United States and England claim to share common principles.

In 1941, prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,

E. President Franklin Roosevelt froze all Japanese assets in the United States.

Which of the following statements regarding the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor is FALSE?

A. The State department assumed the Japanese would never attack American interests.

The Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942

E. marked the first important victory by the United States against Japan.

The Battle of Midway in 1942

A. saw the United States suffer great losses.
B. was a stunning defeat for the Japanese navy.
C. lasted four days.
D. both lasted four days and was a stunning defeat for the Japanese navy.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1943, the country that pressed for an immediate Allied invasion of France against Germany was

A. the Soviet Union.

In 1943, at the Casablanca Conference, the Allies decided they would next invade

C. Sicily.

The Allied decisions that delayed an invasion of France

A. left the Soviet Union deeply embittered.

In regards to European Jewish refugees, between 1939 and 1945, the United States

A. refused to accept large numbers of refugees.

Between 1939 and 1945, the federal budget of the United States

E. rose ten-fold.

Throughout World War II, in organized American labor

B. "wildcat" strikes were quite common.

During World War II, the War Production Board

D. favored large over small contractors.

In 1942, the United States and Mexico agreed to the braceros program which

C. admitted Mexican contract laborers into the United States for a limited time.

In 1943, the "zoot-suit riots" in Los Angeles

B. led the city to prohibit the wearing of zoot suits.

In 1942, when the United States interned Japanese Americans in "relocation centers,"

E. there was no evidence that the Japanese Americans were a domestic security risk.

During World War II, American women who worked outside the home

A. tended to be older than women who worked in the past.

All of the following statements regarding the Allied invasion of France in June 1944 are true EXCEPT

B. the landing was made across the narrowest part of the English Channel.

In February 1945, an Allied bombing attack on Dresden, Germany

A. destroyed 75% of the previously undamaged city.
B. killed approximately 135,000 people.
C. resulted in mostly civilian casualties.
D. both killed approximately 135,000 people and resulted in mostly civilian casualties.
E. All these answers are correct.

The costliest battle in the history of the United States Marines Corps was

A. the Battle of Iwo Jima.

In 1945, the first atomic explosion in history took place in

C. Alamogordo, New Mexico.

In August 1945, the primary reason the United States dropped a second atomic bomb on Japan was because

A. the Japanese did not immediately surrender after the first bomb was dropped.

In early 1945, at the Yalta Conference

...D. it was agreed the Soviet Union should regain land lost in the 1904 Russo-Japanese War.

In designing the structure of the new United Nations, planners called for

A. each nation on the Security Council to have veto power over the others.

At the conclusion of the Yalta Conference in 1945, basic disagreements remained on

A. the government of Poland.
B. the unification of Germany.
C. war reparations to the Soviet Union.
D. both the government of Poland and the unification of Germany.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1945, when Harry Truman became president he

A. had almost no familiarity with foreign affairs.

President Harry Truman initially decided to "get tough" with the Soviet Union

D. after his first few days in office.

By 1945, the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek had

C. little popular support.

Beginning in 1947, the United States' policy of "containment" was

E. None of these answers is correct.

In 1947, the Truman Doctrine

A. asserted it was the obligation of the United States to support free peoples around the world.
B. assumed the Soviet Union would continually attempt a global expansion of its authority.
C. was originally invoked to provide aid to Greece and Turkey.
D. both asserted it was the obligation of the United States to support free peoples around the world, and assumed the Soviet Union would continually attempt a global expansion of its authority.
E. All these answers are correct.

Between 1947-1950, Marshall Plan aid

A. was offered to the Soviet Union.

In 1948, the Soviet Union's blockade of West Berlin was primarily a response to

E. the creation of a unified West Germany.

The National Security Act of 1947 created

A. the National Security Council.
B. the Central Intelligence Agency.
C. the Department of Defense.
D. both the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

C. declared that an attack on one member nation was an attack on all.

The 1950 National Security Council report known as NSC-68 stated

B. the United States must resist communism anywhere it developed in the world.

President Harry Truman's Fair Deal called for

D. the creation of national health insurance.

In 1949, the Truman administration made progress in civil rights by

C. ordering an end to discrimination in the hiring of government employees.

In 1950, the immediate cause of the Korean War was the

C. military invasion by North Korea into South Korea.

As a result of the Korean War, the

D. American public believed there was something wrong with the United States.

In 1947, the first target of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was

E. the movie industry.

In 1947, the Truman administration responded to Republican attacks that it was weak on communism by

C. beginning an investigation into the loyalty of federal employees.

When Joseph McCarthy first leveled charges of communist infiltration in the government, he was a

C. first-term Republican senator.

During Joseph McCarthy's investigation into alleged subversion in government

C. he never produced conclusive evidence that any federal employee was a communist.

In the early 20th century, the vaccine which raised the most safety concerns in the United States was for the prevention of

E. tuberculosis.

During the 1950s, the United States government's primary motive for the development of rocket and missile technology was

D. for the long-range delivery of weapons.

In 1961, the first American to be launched into space was

C. Alan Shepard.

Beginning in the late 1940s, William Levitt used mass-production techniques to sell

D. houses.

The Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

D. declared that separate educational facilities were unlawful.

In 1957, the effort to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas required

B. the presence of federal troops to enforce court orders.

In the 1950s, factors in the rise of the civil rights movement included

A. the events of World War II.
B. the growth of the urban middle class.
C. the rapid spread of television.
D. Cold War politics.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1954, under John Foster Dulles's concept of "massive retaliation," the United States would

C. use nuclear weapons against communist aggression.

The Eisenhower administration responded to Fidel Castro's coming to power in Cuba by

A. ending diplomatic relations.

In his farewell address to the nation, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the dangers of

D. "the military-industrial complex."

In 1961, President John Kennedy saw most of his legislative success in the area of

B. tariff reductions.

In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson's Medicare program

B. was similar in design to the Social Security system.

The Johnson administration's Office of Economic Opportunity

D. included a controversial community action program.

The Immigration Act of 1965

E. eliminated rules which gave preference to immigrants from northern Europe.

Great Society reforms

C. contributed to the greatest reduction in poverty in American history.

Martin Luther King's "I Have A Dream" speech

A. was given during the largest civil rights demonstration in the nation's history to that point.

The Civil Rights Act of 1965 primarily focused on the issue of

B. voting rights.

The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

B. gave President Lyndon Johnson wide latitude to escalate the conflict.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

D. was amended for the benefit of women.

The Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade (1973)

E. was based on a new legal interpretation of privacy rights.

During its first months, the Clinton administration was faced with controversy over

A. its attempt to end the policy barring gays and lesbians from serving in the military.
B. the suicide of a White House counsel and longtime friend of the president.
C. a banking and real estate venture involving the Clintons from the 1980s.
D. several early appointments, which Clinton was forced to withdraw.
E. All these answers are correct.

In 1996, significant reform legislation was passed by Congress concerning

E. welfare programs.

In 2002, President George W. Bush described an "axis of evil" made up of Iraq, Iran, and

C. North Korea.

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