large organization that structures hierarchically to carry out specific functions
a model of bureaucracy developed by Max Weber, who viewed bureaucracies as rational, hierarchial organizations in which power flows from the top downward and decisions are based on logical reasoning and data analysis
model of bureaaucracy that views top level bureaucrats as seeking constantly to expand the size of their budget and the staffs of their departments or agencies so as to gain greater power and influence in the public sector
a federal, state, or local gov. unit established to form a specific function
the selective, retention and promotion of gov. employees on the basis of competitive examination
someone who brings to public attention gross gov inefficiency or illegal action
three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and intrest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests
judge made law that originated in England from decision shaped according to prevailing custom, decisions were applied to similar situations and gradually became common to the nation
judicial interpretations of common law principles an doctrines, as well as interpretations of consitutional law, statuary law, and administrative law
authority of a court to decide certain cases
the statement by a judge or a court of the decisions reached in a case
to annul or make void a court ruling on account of some error or irregularity
seperate opinion prepared by a judge who supports the decision of the majority of the court, but who wants to make or clarify a particular point or to voice disapproval of the grounds on which decision was made
A court having jurisdiction to review cases and issues that were originally tried in lower courts.
to engage in a legal proceeding or seek relief in a court of law; to carry on a lawsuit
a lawsuit filed by a individual seeking damdages for "all persons similarly situated"
writ of certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up a case for review
The verbal arguments presented in person by attorneys to an appellate court. Each attorney presents reasons to the court why the court should rule in her or his client's favor.
to declare that a court ruling is valid and must stand
to send a case back to a lower court to be tried again
an opinion that disagrees with the majority's decision and its reasoning