programs of rehabilitation that remote that remove offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justice system, thus avoiding the stigma of a criminal label.
an enduring label that taints a person's identity and changed him or her in the eyes of others.
a strong moral sense that renders a person incapable of hurting others or violation social norms.
the reassessment of a person's past to fit a current generalized label.
Symbolic Interaction Theory
sociological view that people communicate through symbols. People interpret symbolic communication and incorporate it within their personality. A person's view of reality, then depends on his or her interpretation of symbolic gestures.
Commitment to Conformity
a strong personal investment to conventional institutions, individuals, and processes that prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements.
behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with other; also called direct conditioning.
behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others; also called differential reinforcement.
Reflective Role Taking
according to Matsueda and Heimer, the phenomenon that occurs when youths who view themselves as delinquents give an inner voice to their perceptions of how significant other feel about them.
morally tinged influences that have become entrenched in the culture but are publicly condemned. They exist side by side with conventional values and while condemned in public may be admired or practiced in private.
groups, such as the high school in-crowd, that conform to the social rules of society.
idea that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls of crimogenic influences in the environment.
according to Matza, the view that youths move in and out of delinquency and that their lifestyles can embrace both conventional and deviant values.
Differential Association Theory
according to Sutherland, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values.
using either negative stimuli (punishment) or loss of reward (negative punishment) to curtail unwanted behaviors.
Social Reaction Theory
view that people before criminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity. As known as labeling theory.
Social Control Theory
view that people commit crimes when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken.
Differential Reinforcement Theory
an attempt to explain crime as a type of learned behavior. First proposed by Akers in collaboration with Burgess in 1966, it is a version of social learning view that employs differential association concepts as well as elements of psychological learning theory.
treatment programs aimed at helping offenders, after they have been identified.
ties a person has to the institutions and processes of society. According to Hirschi, elements of the social bond include commitment, attachment, involvement, and belief.
views society as creating deviance through a system of social control agencies that designate certain individuals as deviants. Stigmatized individuals is made to feel unwanted in the normal social order. Eventually, the individual begins to believe that the label is accurate, assumes it as a personal identity, and enters into a deviant or criminal career.
Dramatization of Evil
the negative feedback of law enforcement agencies, parents, friends, teaches, and other figures, amplifies the force of the original label, stigmatized offenders may begin to reevaluate their own identities. The person becomes the thing he is described as being.
holds that offender adhere to conventional values while "drifting" into periods of illegal behavior. In order to drift, people must firs overcome (neutralize) legal and moral values.
Differential Social Control
a process of labeling that may produce a reevaluation of the self, which reflects actual or perceived appraisals made by others.
according to Lemert, deviant acts that do not help redefine that self-image and public image of the offender.
a practice in which African Americans receive harsher punishments in some instances when they victimize (whites) but not in others (as when they victimize other blacks).
Social Learning Theory
view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, either directly from observing those who are close and from intimate contact, or indirectly through the media. Interactions that are reward are copied, while those that are punished are avoided.
Social Process Theory
view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society.