A substance prepared from killed or weakened microorganisms and is introduced into the body to protect the body against future infections by microorgansims.
referring to the deadliness of a disease-causing agent
transfer of genetic material from one organism to another
Also referred to as phage, viruses that infect bacteria.
spiral staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule
Subunits that make up DNA; made of three parts-a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-containing base.
The five carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides.
the rule stating that in DNA adenine on one strand always pairs with a thymine on the opposite strand and guanine on one strand always pairs with a cytosine on the opposite strand
characteristic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
The process of making a copy of DNA.
enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between bases during DNA replication
a Y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA separates so that it can be copied
enzyme that catalyzes the replication of DNA by adding complementary nucleotides
Ribonucleid Acid (RNA)
a type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
A nitrogen base contained in an RNA nucleotide.
stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule
stage of gene expression in which the information in mRNA is used to make a protein
two-stage processing of information encoded in DNA to produce proteins
An enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription is required.
RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for the making of a protein during translation
a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA or mRNA that encodes an amino acid or signifies a stop signal
sequence of nucleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
RNA molecule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
Three-nucleotide sequence on a tRNA that is complementary to an mRNA codon
type of RNA molecule that plays a structural role in ribosomes
region of DNA that controls RNA polymerase's access to a set of genes with related functions
segment of DNA that controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryotes
gene system with a promoter, an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to a promoter site.
segment of mRNA transcribed from eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated
Mutations that change one or just a few nucleotides in a gene on a chromosome are called...