Anthro Midterm

38 terms by mlg263 

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Midterm

Holistic

Encompassing past, present, and future biology, society, language, and culture

Cultural Anthropology

humans and society in culture
show similarities and difference

Archaeological Anthropology

reconstructs, describe, and interpret human behavior and culture through material remains

Biological/ Physical Anthropology

fossil records, human genetics, human growth and development, plasticity, evolution and social behavior

Linguistic Anthropology

study of how people use language to relate to each other and how they develop and transmit culture

Culture

learned, symbolic, shared, nature
what one society encompasses themselves in

Enculturation

a process by which a child learns from his or her culture

Culture relativism

an idea that to know other culture requires full understanding of its members beliefs and motivation

Ethnocentrism

Judging other cultures and using ones own culture standards

Paleoanthropology

study of hominids, hominins, and human life through fossil record

paleontology

study of ancient life through fossil records

systematic survey

a regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns refers to the distribution of sites within a particular area

excavation

digging through the cultural and natural layers of deposits that make up a site

relative dating

a time frame in relation to other strata or material

Stratigraphy

the science that examines the way in which the earths sediments accumulate in layers

taphonomy

the study of process affecting remains of dead animals

catastrophism

view that extinct species were formed by fire, flood, and other natural disasters

uniforitarianism

natural forces at work today that can also explain past events

speciation

formation of new species

punctuated equilibrium

long periods of stability during which species change little, may be interrupted by evolutionary leaps

natural selection

selection of favored forms through differential reproductive successes

evolution

transformation of species

gene flow

exchange of genetic material through interbreeding

gene pool

all genetic material in a breeding population

macro evolution

formation of new species

primate

monkeys, apes, and humans

primatology

the study of apes, monkeys and prosimans

prosimans

lemurs, lorises and tarsiers

anthropoids

monkeys, apes, humans , A member of a primate group made up of the apes (gibbon, orangutan, gorilla, chimpanzee, and bonobo), monkeys, and humans.

brachiation

under the branch swinging, swinging by the arms from branch to branch

hominoid

member of superfamily including humans and all the apes

hominin

member of the human linage after its split from ancestral chimp

hominid

a member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the african apes and their imidate ancestors

bipedalism

upright, two legged locomotion

anthropology

the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings

human diversity

humans are a single, highly variable species inhabiting the entire globe, the biological concept of race cannot be applied to human diversity, the vast majority of human variation exists within populations rather than among populations

ethnography

the branch of anthropology that provides scientific description of individual human societies

reproductive isolation

separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring

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