5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Approximately how many people live in the US?
- Case Control Study
- Types of Prevention:
- Relative Risk
- a A general term for measures of association calculated from data in a 2x2 table. = Risk of disease in exposed (a/(a+b)) / Risk of disease in unexposed (c/(c+d))
- b ...300,000,000
- c Def: Reducing the impact of the disease
Ex. Rehabilitation for stroke
- d According to answers.com, a case control study is a usually retrospective study in which individuals with and without a condition are examined and past medical history etc. is statistically analyzed for correlation.
- e "the study of disease occurrence in human populations" p. 3
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- the proportion of persons in a defined population at a given point in time having the condition in question
- Probability of disease in a patient with a positive test result PV+=true positive/(true positive + false positive) p. 39
- Phase 1: first stage of testing in humans (about 20-100 pple); small group of healthy volunteers; test for safety, tolerability, pharmokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
Phase 2: larger groups (about 20-300 ppl), assess how well the drug works, dosing requirments, efficacy
Phase 3: large groups (300-3,000 ppl), test to see how effective the drug is compared to other drugs
Phase 4: safety survellience, ongoing technical support
- How much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)
- ARR (same as Attributable Risk), It is the absolute value of the control group event rate - the experimental group event rate.
5 True/False Questions
Dependent Variables → "purported cause or predictor variables" p. 5
External Validity → "degree to which the results of an observation hold true in other settings" "generalizability" "Assuming that the results of a study are true, do they apply to my patients as well?" p. 10
Approximately how many people does smoking kill in AL every year? → 450,000
Incidence → The fraction or proportion of a group of people initially free of the outcome of interest that develops the condition over a given period of time
Cohort Study → "incidence study" Sample of people either free of outcome of interest and then followed over time as it emerges, or all diseased then followed for outcomes of that disease.. p. 64, All participants in a cohort study could experience the outcome of interest. 81 See Table 5.2 p. 84 "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohort Studies"