5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Gold Standard
- Approximately how many people does smoking kill in the US every year?
- Regression to the Mean
- a "Patients selected because they represent an extreme value in a distribution can be expected, on average, to have less extreme values on subsequent measurements..This occurs for purely statistical reasons, not because the patients have necessarily improved." This is the reasoning behind repeating lab tests: "Subsequent values are likely to be more accurate estimates of the true value." p. 32
- b 450,000
- c Term describing the best way to tell whether or not a disease or condition is truly present or not, i.e. using a throat culture to confirm clinical impression of strep throat. "Throat culture in this case would be a -----." p. 36 (There should be the understanding that no test is perfect.)
- d "the extent to which repeated measurements of a stable phenomenon by different people and instruments at different times and places get similar results" Other words for this are reproducability and precision. p. 20
- e A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
5 Multiple choice questions
- variables describing a possible effect p. 5
- (Dr. Wheat) author? journal?....i think...Kerr White New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 2, 1961 "Ecology of Medical Care"
- tobacco use
- The prevalence of disease in a specified group of subjects.
- "degree to which the results of a study are correct for the sample of patients being studied...determined by how well the design, data collection, and analyses are carried out and..threatened by..biases and random variation" p. 10
5 True/False questions
Types of Prevention:
Primary Prevention → Def: Reducing the impact of the disease
Ex. Rehabilitation for stroke
Specificity → Proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39
Case Fatality Rate → Proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39
Independent Variables → variables describing a possible effect p. 5
Relative Risk → A general term for measures of association calculated from data in a 2x2 table. = Risk of disease in exposed (a/(a+b)) / Risk of disease in unexposed (c/(c+d))