5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- What is the leading cause of preventable death in the US?
- Relative Risk Reduction
- Independent Variables
- Phases of Drug Development
- Relative Risk
- a A general term for measures of association calculated from data in a 2x2 table. = Risk of disease in exposed (a/(a+b)) / Risk of disease in unexposed (c/(c+d))
- b Phase 1: first stage of testing in humans (about 20-100 pple); small group of healthy volunteers; test for safety, tolerability, pharmokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
Phase 2: larger groups (about 20-300 ppl), assess how well the drug works, dosing requirments, efficacy
Phase 3: large groups (300-3,000 ppl), test to see how effective the drug is compared to other drugs
Phase 4: safety survellience, ongoing technical support
- c tobacco use
- d "purported cause or predictor variables" p. 5
- e How much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)
5 Multiple choice questions
- Normal distribution curve. based in statistical theory, describes the frequency distribution of repeated measurements of the same physical object by the same measurement.
- Term describing the best way to tell whether or not a disease or condition is truly present or not, i.e. using a throat culture to confirm clinical impression of strep throat. "Throat culture in this case would be a -----." p. 36 (There should be the understanding that no test is perfect.)
- The prevalence of disease in a specified group of subjects.
- "incidence study" Sample of people either free of outcome of interest and then followed over time as it emerges, or all diseased then followed for outcomes of that disease.. p. 64, All participants in a cohort study could experience the outcome of interest. 81 See Table 5.2 p. 84 "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohort Studies"
- "degree to which the results of an observation hold true in other settings" "generalizability" "Assuming that the results of a study are true, do they apply to my patients as well?" p. 10
5 True/False questions
Sensitivity → Proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39
PPV → a process at any stage of inference tending to produce results that depart systematically from true values.
Types of Prevention:
Primary Prevention → Definition: Preventing the initial development of a disease
Specificity → Proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test for the disease = true positives/(true positives + false negatives) p. 39
Absolute Risk → The probability of an event in a population under study. #new cases over a given period of time / # people in the group