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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Gausian Curve
  2. Confounders
  3. Independent Variables
  4. Ecology of Medicine
  5. Relative Risk Reduction
  1. a (Dr. Wheat) author? journal?....i think...Kerr White New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 2, 1961 "Ecology of Medical Care"
  2. b "purported cause or predictor variables" p. 5
  3. c Patient characteristics that may affect the results a study it is trying to measure. They can decrease the validity of a study.
  4. d Normal distribution curve. based in statistical theory, describes the frequency distribution of repeated measurements of the same physical object by the same measurement.
  5. e How much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The prevalence of disease in a specified group of subjects.
  2. The more sensitive a test is, the better will be its NPV. The more specific a test it, the better will be its PPV.
  3. The number of people needed to be treated to prevent one bad outcome
    NNT = 1/ARR
  4. According to, a case control study is a usually retrospective study in which individuals with and without a condition are examined and past medical history etc. is statistically analyzed for correlation.
  5. The absolute difference in the rate of events between the control and the intervention group. ( same as ARR)

5 True/False questions

  1. Approximately how many people does smoking kill in AL every year?7,000


  2. Internal Validity"degree to which the results of a study are correct for the sample of patients being studied...determined by how well the design, data collection, and analyses are carried out and..threatened by..biases and random variation" p. 10


  3. Reliability"the extent to which repeated measurements of a stable phenomenon by different people and instruments at different times and places get similar results" Other words for this are reproducability and precision. p. 20


  4. What is the leading cause of preventable death in the US?...300,000,000


  5. Relative RiskThe probability of an event in a population under study. #new cases over a given period of time / # people in the group


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