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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Reliability
  2. Relative Risk Reduction
  3. Specificity
  4. Case Fatality Rate
  5. Phases of Drug Development
  1. a "the extent to which repeated measurements of a stable phenomenon by different people and instruments at different times and places get similar results" Other words for this are reproducability and precision. p. 20
  2. b Proportion of people without the disease who have a negative test = true negatives/ (true negatives + false positives) p. 39
  3. c Proportion of patients who die of a disease
  4. d How much of the risk is reduced in the experimental group compared with the control group. RRR=ARR/(rate of control group)
  5. e Phase 1: first stage of testing in humans (about 20-100 pple); small group of healthy volunteers; test for safety, tolerability, pharmokinetics, and pharmacodynamics
    Phase 2: larger groups (about 20-300 ppl), assess how well the drug works, dosing requirments, efficacy
    Phase 3: large groups (300-3,000 ppl), test to see how effective the drug is compared to other drugs
    Phase 4: safety survellience, ongoing technical support

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A general term for measures of association calculated from data in a 2x2 table. = Risk of disease in exposed (a/(a+b)) / Risk of disease in unexposed (c/(c+d))
  2. a process at any stage of inference tending to produce results that depart systematically from true values.
  3. The number of people needed to be treated to prevent one bad outcome
    NNT = 1/ARR
  4. ARR (same as Attributable Risk), It is the absolute value of the control group event rate - the experimental group event rate.
  5. Probability of disease in a patient with a positive test result PV+=true positive/(true positive + false positive) p. 39

5 True/False Questions

  1. Dependent Variablesvariables describing a possible effect p. 5

          

  2. Gold StandardTerm describing the best way to tell whether or not a disease or condition is truly present or not, i.e. using a throat culture to confirm clinical impression of strep throat. "Throat culture in this case would be a -----." p. 36 (There should be the understanding that no test is perfect.)

          

  3. Regression to the Mean"Patients selected because they represent an extreme value in a distribution can be expected, on average, to have less extreme values on subsequent measurements..This occurs for purely statistical reasons, not because the patients have necessarily improved." This is the reasoning behind repeating lab tests: "Subsequent values are likely to be more accurate estimates of the true value." p. 32

          

  4. Approximately how many people does smoking kill in AL every year?450,000

          

  5. SensitivityProportion of people without the disease who have a negative test = true negatives/ (true negatives + false positives) p. 39

          

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