(364-304 BCE) This Greek philosopher and writer on music and rhythm discovered harmonic elements in 320 BCE.
(1470-1547) This Cardinal was a statesman and a poet who brought about a revival of Petrarch when he set Petrarch's poetry to music.
(1304-1374) This Italian was the father of the Renaissance and Humanism. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
(1440-1521) He was the most important composer of the mid-Renaissance period. His music epitomizes the High Renaissance style with its dense polyphony and homogeneous-sounding harmony.
(480-406 BCE) He was a Greek playwright. The Stasimon Chorus in his "Orestes" offers an example of music used to heighten the emotional impact of a scene in a play.
In Greek mythology, he is the son of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra who eventually avenged his father's murder by killing Aegisthus (who conspired with Clytemnestra to murder Agamemnon).
(1561-1613) This extraordinarily original amateur Italian madrigalist excelled in word painting and adverturesome harmonies.
(1135-1201) He was one of the great exponents of florid organum, a type of polyphony developed by the Ars Antiqua school of composers based at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
A term used to refer to the "old style" typical of 12th century Notre Dame organum and of the 13th century motet and conductus.
This fourteenth century french polyphonic musical style moved increasingly from religious to secular music.
(1483-1546) He began the Protestant Reformation when, in 1517, he publicized his 95 Theses challenging the Roman Catholic tenets and practices regarding penance and indulgences.
Guillaume de Machaut
(1300-1377) This Renaissance composer and poet was considered representative of the Ars Nova, or the music of the 14th century characterized by isorhythm.
Literally meaning the "same rhythm"; in 14th-century music, this was the technique of repeating the same rhythm for each section of a composition (talea), while the pitches were altered (color). Rhythm and melody were dealt with completely separately.
(1557-1602) This English composer published the "Triumph of Oriana," a collection of 23 madrigals in honor of Queen Elizabeth I, in 1601.
Giovanni de Palestrina
(1525-1594) This Renaissance composer is considered to be the "savior" of Roman Catholic Church music. He is said to have composed the "Pope Marcellus" mass to demonstrate that polyphony was compatible with the musical doctrines of the Counter-Reformation.
(560-480 BCE) This Greek philosopher theorized that music is a microcosm of the cosmos and ruled by the same mathematical laws that operate throughout the universe.
Cipriano de Rore
(1515-1565) This Flemish composer worked mainly in Italy. His madrigal "Datemi pace" shows his talent for venturesome harmony to illustrate the text, his concern for clear articulation of the text, and his free interplay of homophony and polyphony.
Greek composer to composed an a "skolion" or drinking song around the 1st century BC.
Epitaph of Seikilos
One of few complete surviving pieces of Ancient Greek music. It survives on two tombstones.
A popular type of drinking song, monophonic.
Thomas of Celano
(1200-1255) He was a Franciscan monk believed to have composed the Catholic plainchant prayer for the dead "Dies Irae" around 1225.
These were liturgical chants to Latin text used since the Middle Ages; also called Gregorian chants.
relating to public worship
(1575-1621) English madrigalist whose madrigal tribute to Queen Elizabeth I -- "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" -- exemplifies his mastery of musical word painting.
This means "day of wrath." It is a section of the requiem mass.
In the Roman Catholic Church this refers to the celebration of the Eucharist.
This ceremony is a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine.
This prince of the Ming dynasty (in China) described the principle of equal temperament in 1596, thought raditionally Andreas Werckmeisteris credited with inventing this concept in 1700.
the division of the scale based on an octave that is divided into twelve exactly equal semitones
A melodic contour that generally features steps between notes. Such a melody will usually sound smooth and controlled.
A melodic contour that generally features leaps between notes. Such a melody will usually sound jagged and jumpy.
A polyphonic vocal style of musical composition that was popular in the Middle Ages.
A group of many notes (usually at least 5 or six) sung melodically to a single syllable. They are found especially in medieval liturgical chant.
A vocal musical form the flourished in the Renaissance originating in Italy. These compositions were usually written for 4-6 voices and usually set to short love poems.
A medieval principle of contruction that was most often used in motets. It featured a complex rhythm that was repeated.
A single melody is shared between two voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests.
Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more addition melodic lines.
Music consisting of two or more simultaneous melody lines of equal importance.
The added second voice in organum.