Bio 113

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GROWTH AT THE LEVEL OF MICROBES MEANS INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF MICROBES NOT THEIR SIZES

TRUE

A COLONY IS

MILLIONS O CELLS COMING FROM ON ORIGINAL CELL

IMPORTANT FACTOR IN REGULATING MICROBIAL GROWTH IS

TEMPERATURE
PH
OXYGEN

SAPROBES

LIVE ON ORGANIC MATTER OF DEAD ORGANISMS

IS THERE ANY ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

YES

WHAT ARE THE NAMES OF TWO MAIN TRANSPORT PROCESSES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

PASSIVE AND ACTIVE

DIFFUSION IS A TYPE OF BLANK TRANSPORT

PASSIVE

DIFFUSION TRANSPORT INVOLVES

MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES FROM HIGH TO LOW CONCENTRATION BY BROWNIAN MOTION

OSMOSIS IS A TYPE OF BLANK TRANSPORT

ACTIVE

OSMOSIS INVOLVES

DIFFUSION OF WATER

IN AN ISOTONIC SOLUTION

THE CONCENTRATION OF SALTS INSIDE THE CELL IS EQUAL TO THE ENVIRONMENT

IN A HYPERTONIC SOLUTION

THE CONCENTRATION OF SALTS INSIDE THE CELL IS LOWER THAN THE ENVIRONMENT

IN A HYPOTONIC SOLUTION

THE CONCENTRATION OF SALTS INSIDE THE CELL IS HIGHER THAN THE ENVIRONMENT

HOW DOES AN AMOEBA ADAPT ITSELF TO LIVING IN FRESH POND WATER IN HYPOTONIC CONDITIONS?

IT HAS WATER (OR CONTRACTILE) VACUOLE THAT MOVES EXCESS WATER OUT OF THE CELL

THERE ARE SOME MICROBES THAT NORMALLY LIVE ON SKIN, IN THE ALIMENTARY TRACT, AND OTHER SITES IN HUMANS

TRUE

SYNERGISM RELATIONSHIP MEANS

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO OR MORE FREE-LIVING ORGANISMS THAT BENEFITS THEM BUT IS NOT NECESSARY FOR THEIR SURVIVAL

SYMBIOSIS MEANS THAT TWO ORGANISMS LIVE TOGETHER IN PARTNERSHIP

TRUE

IN COMMENSALISM

ONE ORGANISM RECEIVES BENEFITS, WHILE ITS COINHABITANT IS NEITHER HARMED NOR BENEFITED

DURING GENERATION TIME YOU EXPECT TO SEE THE NUMBER OF MICROBIAL CELLS TO BE

DOUBLED

ASSUME HAVING A BACTERIAL CELL IN AN OPTIMAL CONDITION OF GROWTH WITH GENERATION TIME OF 20 MINUTES. HOW MANY CELLS WILL BE IN THE CULTURE MEDIA AFTER 1 HOUR.

4

BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE HAS BLANK PHASES

4

LOG PHASE INVOLVES RAPID DIVIDING OF BACTERIA CELLS

FALSE

STANDARD PLATE COUNT METHOD CAN MEASURE VIABLE AS WELL AS DEAD CELL DENSITY

FALSE

THE OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE FOR MOST OF BACTERIA IS BLANK DEGREES C

37

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MAIN REPRODUCTION METHOD IN BACTERIA

BINARY FISSION

THERE ARE NO SPECIES OF BACTERIA THAT ARE ABLE TO LIVE AT ABOUT FREEZING/BOILING TEMPERATURES

FALSE

MOST BACTERIA GROW BETWEEN pH

6.5-7.5

THERE ARE SOME GI BACTERIA AND VIRUSES THAT CAN SURVIVE LOW pH

TRUE

ACIDOPHIL BACTERIA ARE THOSE THAT CAN SURVIVE LOW pH

TRUE

OBLIGATE ANAEROBES BACTERIA

DIE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN

ENDOCYTOSIS IS A FORM OF ACTIVE TRANSPORT

TRUE

WHAT IS THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHAGOCYTOSIS AND PINOCYTOSIS

PHAGOCYTOSIS INVOLVES INGESTING WHOLE CELLS OR LARGE SOLID MATTER BUT PINOCYTOSIS INVOLVES INGESTING OF LIQUIDS SUCH AS OILS OR MOLECULES

THE "ENERGY CURRENCY" OF THE CELL IS

ATP

FACILITATED DIFFUSION NEEDS ENERGY

FALSE

ALTHOUGH PROTEIN CHANNELS INVOLVE IN TRANSPORTATION OF MOLECULES VIA FACILITATED DIFFUSION BUT NO ENERGY IS USED IN THIS PROCESS

TRUE

IN ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL IS ABLE TO TRANSPORT MOLECULES FROM LOW TO HIGH CONCENTRATION

TRUE

ACTIVE TRANSPORT IS USUALLY A COUPLED PROCESS WHICH MEANS THAT A MOLECULE IS TRANSPORTED OUTSIDE THE CELL AND A MOLECULE IS TRANSPORTED INSIDE THE CELL

TRUE

ONE MICROBE SECRETES CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INTO THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT THAT INHIBIT OR DESTROY ANOTHER MICROBE IN THE SAME HABITAT. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF

ANTAGONISM

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REQUIRES THE CELL TO USE ATP?

ENDOCYTOSIS

IN BLANK CONDITIONS, THE CELL WALL WILL HELP PREVENT THE CELL FROM BURSTING

HYPOTONIC

THE PHASE OF THE BACTERIAL GROWTH CURVE IN WHICH NEWLY INOCULATED CELLS ARE ADJUSTING TO THEIR NEW ENVIRONMENT, METABOLIZING BUT NOT GROWING IS THE

STATIONARY PHASE

THE PRINCIPLE SITES OF AMPHIBOLIC INTERACTION OCCUR DURING

GLYCOLYSIS AND KREBS CYCLE

HOW MANY CARBON DIOXIDE MOLECULES ARE PRODUCED BY THE COMPLETE AEROBIC BREAKDOWN OF ONE GLUCOSE MOLECULE

6

DURING WHICH OF THE PHASES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION IS THE MAJORITY OF ATP FORMED

ELECTRON TRANSPORT

ENZYMES THAT ARE ALWAYS PRESENT, REGARDLESS OF THE AMOUNT OF SUBSTRATE ARE

CONSTITUTIVE ENZYMES

A HOLOENZYME IS A COMBINATION OF A PROTEIN AND ONE OR MORE SUBSTANCES CALLED

COFACTORS

EACH OF THE FOLLOW ARE TRUE OF ENZYMES

THEY CAN BE USED OVER AND OVER
THEY MAY OR MAY NOT REQUIRE COFACTORS
THEY INCREASE THE ACTIVATION ENERGY

ENZYMES DECREASE THE ACTIVATION ENERGY OF A REACTION

TRUE

IN AN OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTION, THE COMPOUND THAT LOSES THE ELECTRONS IS SAID TO BE REDUCED

FALSE

WHAT REFERS ONLY TO PROCESSES THAT RESULT IN SYNTHESIS OF CELL MOLECULES AND STRUCTURES, AND REQUIRE THE INPUT OF ENERGY

ANABOLISM

ENZYMES ARE COMPOSED OF

PROTEIN

ENZYMES ARE USUALLY NAMED FROM THE TYPE OF REACTION THEY CATALYZE, WITH THE ENDING OF WHAT TO INDICATE THAT IT IS AN ENZYME

-ASE

MAIN PRODUCTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS ARE

GLUCOSE AND O2

PHOTOSYNTHESIS REACTIONS TAKE PLACE IN

CHLOROPLAST

WHAT REACTION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IS LIGHT-DEPENDENT

LIGHT

LIGHT REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCUR IN

CHLOROPLAST GRANA

DARK REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCUR IN

CHLOROPLAST STROMA

THE MAIN PRODUCTS OF LIGHT REACTION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS ARE

ATP AND NADPH

THE PROCESS OF CONVERTING CO2 TO SUGARS IS DONE DURING WHAT REACTION

DARK REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

INCOMPLETE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE OR OTHER CARBOHYDRATES WITHOUT OXYGEN IS CALLED

FERMENTATION

HOW MANY ATP MOLECULES ARE PRODUCED PER 1 GLUCOSE

38

ORGANISMS OXIDIZE CARBOHYDRATES AS PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE FOR ANABOLISM. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED

RESPIRATION

ALL FORMS OF RESPIRATION STARTS WITH KREB'S CYCLE

FALSE

HIGH TEMPERATURES DENATURE ENZYMES

TRUE

MAIN PRODUCTS OF RESPIRATION ARE

ATP

OXIDATION AND REDUCTION REACTIONS ARE USUALLY COUPLED

TRUE

IF THE WILD TYPE DNA SEQUENCE READS THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, WHAT TYPE OF MUTATION WOULD CHANGE THE SEQUENCE TO THE CAT ATA ETH EBI GRA T

INSERTION

A FRAME SHIFT IS CAUSED BY WHAT MUTATIONS

DELETION AND INSERTION

GENETIC ALTERATION OF A CELL RESULTING FROM THE UPTAKE AND EXPRESSION OF FOREIGN GENETIC MATERIAL VIA VIRUSES IS CALLED

TRANSDUCTION

A LINEAR SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES THAT CALLS FOR ASSEMBLY OF SPECIFIC AMINO ACIDS INTO A POLYPEPTIDE IS CALLED

GENE

HUMANS HAVE THE HIGHEST NUMBER OF GENES AMONG OTHER ORGANISM

TRUE

HOW DOES A 6 FEET LONG HUMAN DNA FIT INTO A NUCLEUS

IT IS TIGHTLY PACKAGED USING HISTONE

NUCLEOID IS

A REGION OF CYTOPLASM IN PROKARYOTES WHERE DNA IS LOCATED

R-PLASMID CONTAINS

ANTIBIOTIC AND TOXIN RESISTANT GENE

NUCLEOSOME IS

A STRUCTURE IN WHICH DNA IS WRAPPED AROUND SOME PROTEIN TWICE

A CIRCULAR PROTEIN THAT DNA IS WRAPPED AROUND IS CALLED

HISTONE

DIFFUSE MATERIAL WITHIN NUCLEUS OF A NON-DIVIDING CELL; CONSISTS OF DNA AND PROTEINS IS CALLED

CHROMATIN

HOW MANY CHROMOSOMES PAIRS ARE THERE IN HUMANS

46

CENTRAL DOGMA OF BIOLOGY SAYS THAT

GENETIC INFORMATION MOVES FROM DNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN

NUCLEIC ACID C ALWAYS PAIR WITH

G

WHAT DOES "DNA STRANDS THAT ARE IN AN ANTI-PARALLEL ARRANGEMENT" REFER TO

ONE STRAND PROCEEDS 3' TO 5' AND THE OTHER ONE PROCEEDS 5' TO 3'

NEW STRANDS OF DNA COMPOSED OF ONE ORIGINAL AND ONE DAUGHTER STRAND. THAT'S WHY DNA REPLICATION IS

SEMICONSERVATIVE

DNA REPLICATION STARTS AT ONE END AND ENDS AT THE OTHER END

FALSE

HELICASE'S ROLE INVOLVES

UNZIPPING DNA MOLECULE

OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS ARE CONSTRUCTED ON

BOTH LAGGING STRAND AND LEADING STRAND

DNA LIGASE

FINAL BINDING OF NEWLY SYNTHESIZED DNA FRAGMENTS

OCCASIONALLY AN INCORRECT BASE IS ADDED TO THE GROWING CHAIN IN DNA REPLICATION

TRUE

RNA IS A DOUBLE STRANDED MOLECULE

FALSE

THERE IS U NUCLEOTIDE INSTEAD OF A IN THE STRUCTURE OF RNA MOLECULES

FALSE

THERE ARE BLANK TYPES OF RNA IN A CELL

3

WHAT BRING AMINO ACIDS TO RIBOSOMES DURING TRANSLATION

tRNA

INITIATION STEP OF TRANSCRIPTION INVOLVES

BINDING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS TO PROMOTER SITES

TERMINATION OF TRANSCRIPTION USUALLY INVOLVES

BRINGING RNA POLYMERASE TO A DNA STRAND

CODING REGIONS THAT WILL BE TRANSLATED INTO PROTEIN ARE CALLED

EXONS

RNA SPLICING MEANS

FURTHER PROCESSING OF RNA BEFORE TRANSLATION

THE NONTRANSCRIBED REGION OF DNA TO WHICH RNA POLYMERASE BIND TO INITIATE TRANSCRIPTION IS CALLED THE

PROMOTER

ALL OF THE FOLLOWING PERTAIN TO TRANSCRIPTION

OCCURS BEFORE TRANSLATION
REQUIRES RNA POLYMERASE
REQUIRES A TEMPLATE DNA STRAND

GROUPS OF THREE CONSECUTIVE BASES ALONG THE DNA OF A GENE HAVE THE CODE OF ONE

AMINO ACID

THE ENZYMES THAT CAN PROOFREAD REPLICATING DNA, DETECT INCORRECT BASES, EXCISE THEM AND CORRECTLY REPLACE THEM ARE

DNA POLYMERASES

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