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AP I Qz 3 Heart

Parietal pericardium

tough, fibroserous membrane may be absent from preserved eharts but remnants can still be seenadhering to the major blood vessels

visceral pericardium (epicardium)

adheres to the surface of the heart
-consists of only one layer of simple squamous cells

right and left ventricles

right ventricle-thin wall-b/c only generates enough force to move blood around the rest of the body
-also has different shape than left

right and left atrium

each atrium has a small ear-like extension called an auricle ("little ear") that slightly increases the volume of the atrium

aorta

the largest vessel just to the right of the right atrium

ligamentum arteriosum

under fat around the aorta
-supports the arch of the aorta against the pulmonary trunk
-this ligament is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus of the fetal heart

pulmonary trunk

-the largest vessel between the aorta and the left atrium as viewed from the anterior surface of the heart
-the vessel divides into the R and L pulmonary ateries

Pulmonary veins

-thin-walled veins embedded in fat
-lead to the left atrium
-located in the posterior surface of the heart at the point where only the right atrium and both ventricles can be seen

superior vena cava

attached to the upper part of the right atrium
-cut through this to get to the tricuspd valve

tricuspid (right atrioventricular) valve

between the right atrium and right ventricle
(cut thru superior vena cava to get to this in dissection)
has 3 cusps

apex

down the right ventricle

endocardium

interior surface of the heart
-consists of a layer of simple squamous cells that are continous with the lining of blood vessels

pectinate muscle

-interior wall of the atrium has a comb-like appearance to increase the strength of this muscle
-****the muscle wall of the atrium is very thin b/c it pumps blood only into the ventricle

3 veins that empty into the chamber of the R atrium

-superior vena cava
-inferior vena cava
-large veins that return blood from the upper and lower regions of the body
-coronary sinus

coronary sinus

DEOXYGENATED blood from the coronary muscle is returned to the right atrium

tribeculae carneae

ridges of the endocardium of both ventricles that reinforce the walls of the chambers
-in the inner wall of the ventricles

chordae tendineae

the AV valves are attached to these chords
-hold the cusps within the ventricle
-anchored to papillary muscles

papillary muscles

muscular projections of the ventricular wall that chordae tendineae are anchored to

pulmonic semilunar valve

up through the right ventricle and into the pulmonary trunk

bicuspid (left atrioventricular or mitral) valve

-between the left atrium and left ventricle

aortic semilunar valve

marks the exit of the left ventricle into the aorta

right and left coronary arteries

in the walls of the aorta just above the aortic semilunar valve
-two openings are these arteries
-carry OXYGENATED blood to the heart muscle

relative levels of oxygen

colors used on models indicate this
-red indicates a high level of oxygen
-blue indicates a lower level of oxygen

myocardial cells

-heart muscle cells
-have striations similar to skeletal muscle when the tissue is relaxed

How myocardial/cardiac muscle cells differ from others

more branched with only one centrally located nucleus per cell
-cells are interconnected by intercalated discs

intercalated discs

connect cells in myocardial muscle cells
-support synchronized contractions of cardiac tissue

human acute myocardial infarction

heart attack
-erythrocytes, blood clots, and evidence of massive invasions of leukocytes that hopelessly attempt to clean up and repair tissue damage

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