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Astrocytes

Form the supportive framework for the nervous tissue; contact and stimulate blood capillaries; convert blood glucose; secret proteins; regulate chemical composition of tissue fluid

Microglial Cells

Phagocytize and destroy microorganisms, foreign matter, and dead nervous tissue

Ependymal Cells

Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord; secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid

Oligodendrocytes

Form the myelin in the brain and spinal cord

Schwann Cells

the PNS glial cell that forms myelin

Satellite Cells

the PNS glial cell that surrounds the dorsal root ganglion neurons

Afferent Neurons

carry signals toward the CNS from the body periphery; sensory neurons

CNS - Central Nervous System

the brain and spinal cord collectively

Efferent Neuron

a neuron that conducts impulses away form the CNS to muscles and glands; motor neurons

Ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS

Interneuron

neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons; association neurons

Neuroglia

specialized supporting cells in the CNS

Neurotransmitters

a chemical released at the distal end of an axon that stimulates an adjacent cell; found in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal; initiates electrical current from one neuron to the next by diffusing across the synaptic cleft

Nerve

a cordlike organ of the PNS composed of multiple nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue

Nuclei

a bundle of nerve processes

PNS - Peripheral Nervous System

Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves

Synapse

junction or point of close contact between neurons

Axon

impulse generator and transmitter

Axon Terminal

secretes neurotransmitters

Axon Hillock

region of the cell body from which the axon generates

Dendrite

receptive region of a neuron

Myelin Sheath

insulates the nerve fibers

Neurofibril

may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron

Neuronal Cell Body

site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area

Nissl Bodies

essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically

Multipolar Neuron

one axon and multiple dendrites; efferent neurons and interneurons are multipolar

Bipolar Neuron

one axon and one dendrite

Unipolar Neuron

one single process leading away from the soma; afferent neurons are unipolar

Endoneurium

surrounds each nerve fiber

Perineurium

binds groups of fibers together to form bundles

Epineurium

binds all of the fascicles together

Mixed Nerve

nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers

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