Open Door Policy
a policy, proposed by the United States in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country
member of the warrior class in Japanese feudal society
Code of conduct for Samurai during the feudal period in Japan
in japanese feudal society, supreme military commander who held more power than the emperor
this allowed Europeans the freedom to disregard Chinese laws
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
system of beliefs; taught that people need to have a sense of duty to family and community in order to bring peace to society.
It is a philosophy which is founded by Laozi. Daoism emphasizes living in harmony with nature
a Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order
wealthy landowning class
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries; during the Qing dynasty China was ruled by the Manchu
Japan's large landowners
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
leader of the group that overthrew the last emperor in China, then became the president of China and later the leader of the Nationalist party in China
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party who remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
Leader of the Nationalist Party who came to power after the death of Sun Yat-sen and ruled until 1949; opposed
communists in the Civil War
the practice of extending a nation's power by gaining territories for a colonial empire
a British colony in China, received after the first Opium War and returned to China in 1997
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese term meaning "the divine right to rule"
internal economic problems in China which included government corruption and high taxes led to a peasant revolt
from 1850 to 1864; the government finally crushed the rebellion but it almost defeated the Qing Dynasty.
a series of rulers from a single family
The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. They wore red arm bands and carried his book. They terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps. They were mainly university and high school students. They tried to revitalize the revolutionary spirit by attacking local party leaders and teachers.
Mao's Little Red Book
the list of rules, regulations, and beliefs of Mao's principles
(1966-1976) a movement started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands of citizens who opposed the beliefs of
Chinese leader who reformed and modernized China's economy in 1981 by allowing some features of a free market system such as private ownership of property.
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
what the ancient Chinese called China because they thought that China was the center of the earth
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years