Diabetes Mellitus

38 terms by marler12 

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polyuria

excessive peeing

polydipsia

excessive thirst

polyphagia

excessive eating

below 100

target range for LDL

below 150

target range for triglycerides

Men above 40, women above 50

target range for HDL in men and women

below 180

target range for peak postmeal plasma glucose

90-130

target range for premeal plasma glucose

carbohydrates, fats, cholesterol

50-60% fats 20-30% with 10% only for saturated fats and below 300 for this.

10-20%

protein

amount per meal

1 unit of insulin for 15 g carb
carb budget/meal 445-60 g

food guide pyramid

Useful for type 2 who have difficulty with calorie-control diet

(above 250 mg/dL) ketones

Exercise with elevated blood sugar levels over this or with these in urine should be avoided

decreases

Insulin normally ________ with exercise

increases

Insulin need ________ after 1st trimester of pregnancy

1700 dollars

the cost of conventional therapy

4000 dollars

the cost of intensive therapy

5800 dollars

the cost of infusion pump therapy

sulfylurea drugs

first oral drug given to SKINNY type 2 diabetics

metformin

first oral drug given to FAT type 2 diabetics

test for keytones

glycosuria or elevated BG over 240 mg/dL

glycerol and fatty acids

fat broken down through lysolysis in Type 1s release these:

syndrome X

Insulin resistance syndrome is also know as

hyperosmolar nonketotic acidosis

long periods of severe hyperglycemia may result in severe....

third

gestational diabetes usually develops during the ___ trimester

IGT

2 hour post-glucose load 140-199 mg/dl

IFG

Fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dl

Advanced Glycation End products

The microvasculature of the retina, renal glomerulus, and the walls of the larger blood vessels, accumulate deposits of glycated proteins called

fruity smell

smell of acetone

repaglinide

works like a sulfonurea but peaks in 30-60 min and is rapidly metabolized and is taken with meals

metformin

a biguanide agent that lowers plasma glucose mainly by preventing glycogenolysis in the liver.

thiazolidinedione

act to increase tissue sensitivity to insulin, thus increasing glucose utilization and decreasing blood glucose levels.

Acarbose

slows metabolism of carbohydrates

Ultralente

longest acting insulin and is peakless

Regular

short acting, with an onset of activity at about 30 minutes to 1 hour after injection and a peak activity at 2 to 3 hours.

Lispro

rapid acting activates in 15 minutes and peaks in 30 to 90 minutes.

Regular

regular insulin taken prior to breakfast will peak at about midmorning;

holding, giving

hypoglycemia involves _______ insulin, and ketoacidosis requires _______ insulin.

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