serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
the encoding of picture images
the encoding of meaning, like the meaning of words
the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.
organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings.
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
next in line effect
you are more focused on what you're going to say that you forget what the person before you said
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill in the blank test
a measure of memory in which the person needs only to identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
anchor points you can use to access the target information when you want to retrieve it later
eerie sense that you've experiences something before. cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
state dependent theory
what we learn in one state may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state
mood congruent theory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Even if we encode something well, we can forget it. Without rehearsal, we forget thing over time.
basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
repeatedly imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories
attributing the wrong source to an event we have experienced, hear about, read about, or imagined
retention independent of conscious recollection. know how to do it by instinct, unconsiously
memory of facts and experience that one can consciously know and "declare"
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process EXPLICIT memories for STORAGE
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the processing of information into the memory system
the retention of encoded information overtime
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as 7 digits of a phone number, before the information is stored and forgotten. capacity=7 +/- 2. duration= 20 sec. but increases with maintenance rehearsal
conscious repetition of info to either maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless store house of the memory system. capacity= unlimited. duration=use it or lose it
long term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory