Art Chapter 7-Final

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What is Print?

An image or design that is transferred to to paper, surface, or a similar material. Prints are done in editions (editions means more than one).

Matrix is..

the working surface

Printmaking technologies are:

A) Relief: (negative areas cut away) block, ink, paper.
B) Intaglio: (positive areas cut into surface) metal plate, ink, wiped plate, paper
C) Lithography: (positive areas drawn with crayon) stone, ink, water, acid fixer, paper, rewatered and inked stone
D) Serigraphy: frame, reverse mask, porous screen, ink, squeegee, paper

The four different printmaking methods are:

Relief, Intaglio, Lithography, and Serigraphy

Describe the Printmaking technology - Relief.

Raised surface. Prints and cuts away areas. Do not print.
The matrix is carved with a knife or gouge (cut out areas are not printed, while raised areas are).

Describe the Printmaking technology - Intaglio

Makes a very thin line. It is a recesse method-- ink goes below the surface. It replaced woodcut. Was introduced in the 15th century. Intaglio includes engraving, drypoint, etching, Mezzotint, and Aquatint. Great for illustration. It is a large group. Goes into the cut. A metal plate.

Describe the Printmaking technology - Lithography

Lithography or "planographic printing" was invented in the 19th century by German Playwright, Aloys Senefelder.
Lithography is a planographic or "flat surface" method that uses a stone slab matrix.
Unlike relief and intaglio printing, the matrix used in lithography is completely flat.

Describe the Printmaking technology - Serigraphy

Serigraphy is also known as "silkscreen painting".
Serigraphy is the only method that uses paint and ink.
Stencils are used to create the designer image.
Silk, nylon, or a fine mesh is stretched on a frame.
The stencil is applied to the screen using a squeegee

Relief printing is ...

where the matrix is carved with knives or gouges and areas that are not meant to be printed are cut below the surface of the matrix.

What is WOODCUT?

Woodcut is a RELIEF method and is the oldest form of printmaking, first used by the Chinese.

How are WOODCUTS made?

Woodcuts are made by cutting along the grain of the flat surface of a wooden board with a knife.

"Family by the Lotus Pond", by Zhao Xiaomo

"Family by the Lotus Pond" is an example of a "woodcut" -- meaning, areas that were not meant to be printed were carved below the surface of the wood.

What is Wood Engraving?

Wood engraving is another relief method that differs from woodcuts. Whereas the woodcut uses the flat survace of the wood, wood engraving use the end sections of the boards, yielding a hard, non-directional surface.

How is Wood Engraving done?

Wood engraving uses a burin tool to incise thin lines that are extremely fine and detailed.

"Growing Corn", by Paul Landacre is an exa of: (pg. 139)

"Growing Corn" is a good example of precise lines and tonal gradations that can be achieved from wood engraving.

In the second printmaking method, Intaglio, prints are made...

from metal plates into which lines have been incised.

The popularity of relief printing declined....

with the introduction of the intaglio printing method in the 15th century.

What does the Intaglio method include?

The Intaglio Method includes engraving, drypoint, etching, mezzotint and aquatint, and other etching methods.

What is the Intaglio Method of ENGRAVING?

Intaglio method of ENGRAVING is an ancient artistic method.
Engravings were first used on paper during the 15th century.
Clean lines on copper, zinc, or steel matrix are made using a burin.
The harder you push, the deeper the line; the more ink it holds, the darker the resulting line is on paper.
-If you want a deeper line, you have to dig in deeper. The more pressure, the deeper and last longing the line.
Lines are very thin and very detailed.
Engravings has the look of pen and ink drawings.

What is the Intaglio Method of DRYPOINT?

-Drypoint is engraving with a twist. A needle is dragged across the surface which leaves a rough edge or metal burr left in its wake.
-This burr creates a soft line instead of a crisp line.
-Drypoint looks like crayon drawings

What is the Intaglio Method of ETCHING?

-Etching is an intaglio process but there are unique differences.
-Minimal pressure is used for the depth of the line in etching
- Etchings will have more of a rubbery texture
-A chemical process does the rest by:
1. A metal plate is covered with an acid resist liquid like wax or resin.
2. Once dry, the artist scratches this surface off with a needle
3. Then, the lines are put in acid and it eats away the exposed areas, deepening the lines.

What is the Intaglio Method of MEZZOTINT?

MEZZOTINT and AQUATINT does not depend on lines. They both are NON-LINEAR intaglio techniques.
MEZZOTINT comes from the Italian word meaning "half tint"
- Mezzotint is rarely used because it is too painstaking and time consuming.
How: 1. The entire plate is worked w/ a hatcher which creates thousands of tiny pits all over the surface whih hold the ink.
2. The hatcher is a curved multitoothed implement.
3. For areas that you want to be white, you polish or smooth the areas so that they will not hold ink.

What is the Intaglio Method of OTHER ETCHING METHODS?

Soft-ground etching, lift-ground etching, and gaufrage

How would an artist use ENGRAVING?

The artist creates clean cut lines on a plate of coper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface with the heel of the hand.

How is DRYPOINT created?

With DRYPOINT, a needle is dragged across the metal surface, and a metal burr, or rough edge is left to one side of the furrow. The burr retains particles of ink, creating a soft rather than crisp line.

"CHRIST CRUCIFIED BETWEN THE TWO THIEVES", by Rembrandt...

Rembrandt uses a drypoint needle to create soft, velvety lines.

"LouLou Distracted", by Henri Matisse...

Matisse uses only a few uniformly etched lines.

"Untitled", by Hung Liu...

"Untitled" is a photo-etching in which the artist (Hung Liu) purpose was to highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese women.

What methods of media are ENGRAVING, DRYPOINT, and ETCHING?

Engraving, Drypoint, and Etching are linear methods of media.

What methods of media are MEZZOTINT AND AQUATINT?

Mezzotint and Aquatint are non-linear methods of media.

Who was MEZZOTINT was developed by?

Mezzotint was developed by a Dutchman in the 17th century. The word mezzotint is Italian -- meaning, "half tint".

How is MEZZOTINT created?

In Mezzotint, a metal plate is worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a hatcher.

How is Mezzotint used?

Mezzotint is RARELY used because it is a painstaking and time consuming procedure.

What is AQUATINT and how is it used?

Aquatint is an acid procedure often used in conjunctin with etching and is often manipulated to resemble tones produced by wash drawings.

"The Painter and His Model", by Pablo Picasso

In "The Painter and His Model", Picasso was able to approximate the effects of mezzotint with a much simpler technique of aquatint.

What is Soft-Ground Etching?

Soft-ground etching employs a ground of softened wax and can be used to render the effects of crayon or pencil drawings.

What is Lift-Ground Etching?

Lift-ground etching is where the artist creates the illusion of brush and ink drawing by brushing a solutin of sugar and water onto a resin-coated plate.

What is Gauffrage?

Gauffrage or "inkless intaglio, makes white lines on white paper.

"Solo V", by Josef Albers

"Solo V" is an example of inkless intaglio or gauffrage.

What type of printmaking method is LITHOGRAPHY?

Lithography was the Third printmaking method and was invented at the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright.

The definition of Lithography is...

Lithography is a surface or planographic printing process in which a stone slab matrix is used.

"Great Criticism: Coca-Cola", by Wang Guangyi is..

a Color Lithograph that resembles a commercially produced propaganda poster.

What type of printmaking method is SERIGRAPHY?

Serigraphy is the fourth printmaking method and is also known as "silkscreen" or "screen printing".

What type of printmaking process is Serigraphy known for?

Serigraphy is the ONLY PRINTMAKING PROESS in which prints can be made in paint as well as ink.

Photo Silkscreen...

Is is serigraphic process that allows artists to create images on screens covered with a light sensitive gel.

"Four Marilyns", by Andy Warhol was created using what type of printmaking process?

In the "Four Marilyns", Serigraphy was first used as a commercial medium but Andy Warhol used it as a fine art medium in this work.

"Red Coat", by Alex Katz is...

a Silkscreen Print in which the female subject is similar to a high fashion model.

What is Monotype?

Monotype is a printmaking process which only yields a single unique image.

What is the Intaglio Method of AQUATINT?

MEZZOTINT and AQUATINT does not depend on lines. They both are NON-LINEAR intaglio techniques.
Aquatint is much easier and quicker.
HOW:
1. a metal plate is evenly coated with a fine powder of acid-resistant resin. The plate is heated, making the resin melt and stick to the plate.
2. Lines are etched
3. The plated is placed in acid and the exposed surfaces are eaten away.
4. Aquatint is often used with line etching to make images that have tones that look like wash drawings. (Is a lot simplier)

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