Art - Chapter 8 - Final

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Photography is ...

a word derived from the Greek roots, which means "to write with light"

See Figure 8-3, page 152, regarding the Camera and the Human Eye.

In both the camera and the human eye, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.

In a CANDID SHOT...

The camera opens for a few thousandths of a second over and over in quick succession for capturing fast action.

What is APERTURE?

Aperture controls the amouont of light that enters the camera.

What does a SHUTTER do?

The Shutter controls the amount of time that film is exposed to light.

Film is a ...

photosensitive surface.

What is a TELEPHOTO LENS?

A telephoto lens magnifies faraway objects and collapses spaces between ordinarily distant objects.

What is EMULSION?

Emulsion is the active layer of film which contains small particles of silver halide.

What is a NEGATIVE?

Negatives are where areas of light and dark are reversed.

Color Reversal Film..

Color reversal film is when prints are made directly from this type as with Polariod Film in which the picture appears before your eyes.

Color Negative Film...

Negatives are first made from Color Negative Film and then prints are made from the negative.

Resolution...

is a term used in digital photography which means sharpness. Higher quality digital photos have higher resolution.

Camera Obscura...

The term Camera Obscura literally means "dark room" which was used by Renaissance artists to help them accurately portray depth or perspective on 2 dimensional surfaces.

HELIOGRAPHY is ...

the First Photographic Process, discovered by Joseph Niepce in 1826, to successfully leave a permanent image.

DAGUERREOTYPE...

resulted from a partnership made with Niepce and Louis Daguerre and was a more practical process using a thin sheet of silver coated copper that was placed inside the camera obscura.

"The Artist's Studio", by Louis Daguerre...

was taken in 1837. It was the first photograph of its kind produced on silver lated copper.

PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIOS...

became popular by teh 1850's and began to serve the needs of ordinary people.

The Negative was invented by...

a British scientist, William Henry Fox Talbot in 1839.

William Henry Fox Talbot "Botanical Specimen"

eerie delictae photographs of plants produced from a negative

After the daguerreotype

the next major advance in photography was autochrome color introduced by Louis Lumiere

Autochrome color existed

from 1906-1932. In 1932 Kodak replaced autochrome with a more advanced color process

Alexander Gardner "Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter"

example of the first photojournalism taken during the Civil War from a camera in a wagon called a "whatsit"

Dorothea Lange "Migrant Mother"

example of photojournalism taken during the U.S. Great Depression in 1936

Margaret Bourke-White "The Living Dead of Buchenwald"

commenting on this photograph of Jewish victims of the Holocaust during World War 2, Bourke stated that it made her ashamed to be a member of the human race when she realized what Hitler had done to the jews

Margaret Courke-White

discovered the key to successful photojournalism is neing in the right place at the right time or in the wrong place at the wrong time

The advent of the camera in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

replaced the age-old need of art to imitate nature as closely as possible, thus leading the development of 20th century abstraction

The Photo-Secession

a group of early 20th century photographers who had as their goal the establishment of photography as a separate art form

Edward Steichen "The Flatiron Building-Evening"

a foremost early example of the photograph as a work of art

William Wegman "Blue Period"

The photographer often uses animals, especially dogs, as models in his photographs. This one is meant to be a joke using canine subject matter which pokes fun at Picass's painting "Old Guitarist"

cinematography

the art of making motion pictures

Stroboscopic motion

presentation of a rapid progression of stationary objects at a speed of from 16 to 24 frames per second

See fig.8-21, page 164. Eadweard Muybridge is credited with

performing the first successful experiments with cinematography

D.W. Griffith is credited with

early advances making cameras mobile and with many of the film editing techniques that filmmakers use today

Montage

a filmmaking technique in which there is a flash or whirl of adruptly changing newspaper headlines meant to indicate the progression of time and events in a film

The Wizard of Oz and Gone with The Wind

were two of the first successful color films produced in 1938

The Wizard of Oz depicted

real life in black and white and imaginary life of Oz in expressionistic color

Panorama

a camera technique that gives unlimited view in all directions. It was first used in the movie Gone with The Wind

Animation

creating a motion picture by photographing a series of drawings

Salvador "Un Chien Andalou"

intended to evoke reactions of repulsion and attraction

Dara Birnbaum "PM Magazine"

a video that focuses on the exploitation of women

Robert Lazzarini "Payphone"

intended to compel the viewer to take a new look at the familiar

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