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alveol/o

alveolus ( air sac)

bronch/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchi/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchiol/o

bronchiole (little airway)

capn/o

carbon dioxide

carb/o

carbon dioxide

laryng/o

larynx ( voice box)

lob/o

lobe (a portion)

nas/o

nose

rhin/o

nose

or/o

mouth

ox/o

oxygen

palat/o

palate

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

phren/o

diaphragm (also mind)

pleur/o

pleura

pneum/o

air or lung

pneumon/o

air or lung

pulmon/o

lung

sinus/o

sinus (cavity)

spir/o

breathing

thorac/o

chest

pector/o

chest

steth/o

chest

tonsill/o

tonsil (almond)

trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

uvul/o

uvula

-pnea

breathing

sinuses

air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity

palate

partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate

pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

nasopharynx

part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages

oropharynx

central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis

laryngopharynx

lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus

tonsils

oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion-also called palatine tonsils

adeniod

lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose- also called pharyngeal tonsil

larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

glottis

opening between the vocal cords in the larynx

epiglottis

lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway

lobes

subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right

mediastinum

partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lung) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland

cilia

hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions

parenchyma

functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration

eupnea

normal breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

tachypnea

fast breathing

hypopnea

shallow breathing

hyperpnea

deep breathing

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

apnea

inability to breathe

orthopnea

ability to breathe only in an upright position

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea

crackles/ rales

popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli- occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis

wheezes/ rhonchi

high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway- occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema

caseous necrosis

degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance

dysphonia

hoarseness

epistaxis

nosebleed

expectoration

coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs

sputum

material expelled from the lungs by coughing

hemoptysis

coughing up and spitting out blood origination in the lungs

hypercapnia

excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercarbia

excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypoxemia

deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells

pulmonary edema

fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose

atelectasis

collapse of lung tissue

emphysema

obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

cystic fibrosis

inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage

nasal polyposis

presence of numerous polyps in the nose

pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity

empyema

accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

pyothorax

accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

pleuritis/pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

pneumoconiosis

chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone

pneumonia

inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals

pneumocystis pneumonia

pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism- a common opportunictic infection sen in those with postive human immunodeficiency

pulmonary embolism (PE)

occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot

pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions

upper respiratory infectino (URI)

infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases

pH

a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity

PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

endoscopy

examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purposes

bronchoscopy

use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope to examine the airways

nasopharyngoscopy

use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers

lung biopsy (Bx)

removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination

lung scan

two-part nuclear scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of perfusion or ventilation, commonly called a V/Q scan Ventilation scan-made as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airway Perfunsion scan- made after radioactive material is injuected into the blood and circulates to the lungs

magnetic resonance image (MRI)

nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions

polysomnography (PSG)

recording of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders

auscultation

to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds

percussion

physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest

pulmonary function testing (PFT)

direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities

spirometry

portion of pulmonary functions testing that is a direct measurment of lung volume and capacity

tidal volume (TV or Vt)

amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration

vital capacity (VC)

amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration

peak flow (PF) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)

measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air aftera maximal inspiration

pulse oximetry

nonivasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia

radiology

x-ray imaging

chest x-ray (CXR)

x-ray image of the chest to visualize the lungs

computed tomography (CT)

computed x-ray imaging of the head is used to visualize the stuctures of the nose and sinuses; CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung

pulmonary angiography

x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material

adeniodectomy

excision of the adenoids

lobectomy

removal of a lobe of a lung

nasal polypectomy

removal of a nasal polyp

pneumonectomy

removal of an entire lung

thoracentesis

puncture for aspiration of the chest

thoracoplasty

repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs

thoracoscopy

endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope

thoracostomy

creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube

thoracotomy

incision into the chest

tonsillectomy

excision of the palatine tonsils

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A)

excision of the tonsils and adenoids

tracheostomy

creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube

tracheotomy

incision into the trachea

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

method of artificial respiration and closed-chest massage used to restore breathing and cardiac output after cardiac arrest

continuous postive airway pressure (CPAP)

device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea

endotracheal intubation

passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs

incentive spirometry

common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications

mechanical ventilation

mechanical method performed by a respiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing using a ventilator

antibiotic

drug that kills or inhibits the growth of micoorganisms

anticoagulant

drug that dissolves, or prevent the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels

antihistamine

drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine

histamine

compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation,etc., causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, dilaton of blood vessels

bronchodilator

drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi

expectorant

drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing

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