illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with its support.
behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and other sanctions.
criminal justice system
the more than 55,000 local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals.
the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons.
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
differential association theory
the proposition that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with persons who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity.
illegitimate opportunity structures
circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels.
a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people.
the proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
occupational (white-collar) crime
illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.
a business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.
illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it.
the initial act of rule-breaking.
burglary (breaking into private property to commit a serious crime), motor vehicle theft , larceny-theft (theft of property worth $50 or more), and arson.
any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
social bond theory
the proposition that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken.
systematic practices developed by social groups to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance.
the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
the calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as non-deviant.
crimes involving a willing exchange of illegal goods or services among adults.
actions-murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault-involving force or the threat of force against others.