Rocks & Minerals

38 terms by jaybaker

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Mineral

A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid, that has a crystal system and a definite chemical composition

Color

The absorption or lack of absorption of light

Hardness

A mineral's resistance to scratch

Cleavage

The tendency of a mineral to break along flat surfaces

Fracture

The tendency of a mineral to break along uneven and irregular surfaces

Streak

The color of a mineral in powdered form

Luster

The way a surface reflects light

Density

The amount of matter in a given space

Mohs Hardness Scale

Geologists determine a mineral's hardness by comparing it to the minerals on this scale

Inorganic

The mineral cannot form from materials that were once part of a living thing

Rock

A solid mixture of crystals of 1 or more minerals

Rock Cycle

The process by which 1 rock type changes into another

Composition

The minerals a rock is made of determine this

Texture

The rock is determined by the size, shapes, and positions of the grains of which it is made

Igneous Rock

Rock formed from the cooling of magma

Intrusive Igneous

Igneous rock formed from the cooling of magma inside the earth

Extrusive Igneous

Igneous rock formed from the cooling of lava on the earth's surface

Strata

Layers of rocks

Stratification

The layering of rocks

Sedimentary Rock

Rock formed from weathering and erosion of sediments

Clastic Sedimentary

Rocks that are made of fragments from other rocks and minerals

Chemical Sedimentary

Rocks that form from solutions of minerals and water

Organic Sedimentary

Rock that froms from the dead remains of plants and animals

Metamorphic Rock

Rock formed due to extreme heat and pressure

Non-foliated Metamorphic

Grains are not aligned

Foliated Metamorphic

Grains are aligned the the pages of a book

Magma

Molten rock inside the earth

Lava

Molten rock outside the earth

Coarse Grained

The rough texture of a rock

Fine Grained

The smooth texture of a rock

Melting

the process whereby heat changes something from a solid to a liquid

Cooling

the process when magma , lava , hot rock, or etc, somehow cool down or in the process of becoming cool.

Erosion

Water or wind loosen and carry away fragments of rock

Deposition

Sediments settle out of wind and water

Compaction

Sediments are pressed together in layers

Cementation

Dissolved minerals glue sediments together

Heat

the transfer of thermal energy

Pressure

the force pushing on an area or surface

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