What was the Jackson Democracy?
Idea of widening political power to more of the people
Insured the idea of majority rule
As a result of the Jacksonian Democracy, the number of voters increased
What was the Spoils System?
Practice of giving government jobs to political backers
Jackson's inauguration led to a change in cabinet, which he was accused of using the spoils system
Following the accusation, Jackson defended himself by stating the principle of rotation in office
Who were the Northeastern people?
Wanted Western lands sold at higher prices
Supported federal spending on internal improvements
Supported high tariffs
What was the Doctrine of Nullification?
Kept South Carolina for seceding, or withdrawing, from the Union
States that each state had a right to nullify, or reject a federal law considered unconstitutional
Creator, John C. Calhoun, believed that Congress did not have the right to impose a tariff that favored one part of the country over another
What was the Indian Removal Act?
Indian Removal Act of 1830: governments were to negotiate treaties that would require the Native Americans to relocate to the Indian Territory, which was parts of Texas and Oklahoma
Where did the Cherokee come from?
Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee
Who was Sequoya?
Invented the Cherokee's written language to help them share the power with whites and keep their independance
What was the Second Bank?
Most powerful bank in the country
Set policies that controlled nation's money supply
Since the bank made loans to members of Congress, the bank could influence the lawmakers decisions
Jackson believed the bank had too much power
To stay in business, the bank needed a charter, or a written grant, from the federal government
Jackson let Congress renew the charter, but he vetoed the renewal
Set out to demolish the bank, Jackson and his supporters put government funds in state banks
Although the bank stuck back by making it harder to borrow money, Jackson prevailed
What was the Whig Party?
Formed by Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and other lawmakers against Jackson
Strongly opposed "King Andrew Jackson" and supporters
Believed that Congress represented the people, not the president
Blamed Van Buren for the Panic of 1837
Chose William Henry Harrison of Ohio as their presidential candidate and John Tyler as his running mate
Harrison won the election, but died shortly after his inauguration. John Tyler soon became president.
What is secession?
a separation or withdrawal from an alliance or federation
What were the Seminoles and what did they do?
A Native American tribe who refused to leave their homelands of Florida. The Second Seminole War was a result of this. The Seminoles hid in the Everglades and planned attacks against the U.S. Army
What were the pros of Jackson's inauguration event?
Inspired many people to get interested in politics and the presidency candidates
His majority rule concept widened political power to more of the country's people
He earned the trust of the people and received the most popular votes
What were the cons of Jackson's inauguration event?
His conflicts with Adams forced the Democratic-Republican party to split into separate political groups
In order to win the election, he had to pass John Adams off as a "rich man" representative, making him seem unrelatable to the common man
His tactics during the 1828 campaign were vicious, and made personal attacks on his opponent's family
What were the pros of Jackson beginning office?
His election was hailed as a victory for working people, and it inspired them
A new political era began
He made a promise to the country to reform the government
What were the cons of Jackson beginning office?
Instead of reforming the government like he promised, Jackson replaced the government officials with his supporters
Shortly after the inauguration, the country was torn apart by three economic issues
What were the 3 economic issues after Jackson got elected?
The sales of Western public land
What were the pros of Jackson having tariffs?
Tariffs made American-made goods less expensive than imports, protecting the Northeastern factories
What were the cons of Jackson having tariffs?
Tariffs made imported goods more expensive than American-made goods
Southern planters depended on the foreign trading of goods, so the tariffs drastically hurt their economy
The tariffs fueled the fires of a national debate that had been raging
What were the Nullification Crisis pros?
John C. Calhoun sympathized with South Carolina and the other struggling states, and created the doctrine of nullification
The doctrine stated that a state could nullify (reject) a federal law that it considered unconstitutional
This gave the states a peaceful way to protest and maintain their freedom
What were the Nullification Crisis cons?
Congress passed a bill that significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods
The Southerners hated it and called it the Tariff of Abomination
The tariff hit South Carolina's economy hard
What were the pros of Jackson's Native American views?
By ordering the Native Americans to leave their land, the United States grew larger
Some Native Americans were assimilated into white culture, and learned many new things
What were the cons of Jackson's Native American cons?
Since Jackson viewed the Native Americans uncivilized and obstacles, he supported them moving and the Indian Removal Act
He believed that the Native Americans could be bossed around by the government, and he made them sign their land over
He immediately enforced the Act (which caused conflict and strained relationships with government leaders) and thousands of Native Americans were forced into camps
What were the pros of Jackson targeting the Second Bank?
Jackson found the bank's president, Mr. Biddle, corrupt and chose to protect the U.S. citizens by shutting his bank down
He found the bank unconstitutional, didn't renew Mr. Biddle's charter, and put an emphasis on state banks
The state banks made getting loans easier
What were the cons of Jackson targeting the Second Bank?
The bank went out of business, and all of the employees who worked there lost their jobs
Since the state banks became popular, they issued too much money
The value of the dollar went down
People now had to pay in gold and silver
Jackson left office while the economy was in the Panic of 1837
What were the pros of Jackson leaving office?
The Whig Party was formed
Martin Van Buren was elected
Who was Martin Van Buren?
Won because of attractive political and personal qualities
Had anti-slavery beliefs
Won the election with over 50% of the votes
What were the cons of Jackson leaving office?
He left the office too "puffed up"
The USA went into a depression
What happened during the "after-Jackson" depression?
Lasted 5 years
The banks failed
Un-employment levels went record high
Food riots happened
Railroad and canal projects failed