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Whose voyages of exploration opened the way for the Europeans to the Indies?

Vasco De gama

Which of the following statements concerning Ming social organization is most accurate?

Under the continued influence of Neo-Confucian Ideology, Ming society remained rigidly stratified with emphasis on deference of youth to elders and women to men.

Despite their armaments, what factor convinced the Europeans that they could make little headway against the kingdoms of asia?

The large populations and well-entrenched political and economic systems of Asian Kingdoms.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the Asian sea-trading network?

There was no central control, and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges.

Which of the following was NOT a fortified trading port established by the portuguese in the early 16th century?

Batavia

Where were foreigners permitted to do business in China during the Ming era?

At Macao and Canton

Which of the following products was associated with the arab zone of the asian sea trading network?

Glass

Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zheng He expeditions?

There was little of value for the chinese to import in trade, and the voyages were expensive to carry out.

What area of the Philippines was the spanish NOT able to conquer?

Mindanao

Which of the following statements concerning the ming economy is most accurate?

Much merchant wealth was invested in land as mean of social advancement.

In what year was the Tokugawa Shogunate founded, marking the reestablishment of central government in Japan?

1603

What Jesuit missionary was responsible for creating the strategy of converting Hindu elites as means of achieving mass conversions?

Robert Di Nobili

Which of the following products was associated with the Indian zone of the sea-trading network?

Cotton textiles

In terms of literature, what was the chief accomplishment of the Ming era?

The novel

What was the portuguese lesson learned at Calicut?

That the western products brought for trade were of little to no value in india markets.

How did the dutch commercial strategy within the asian trade network differ from that of the portuguese?

The dutch were more systematic in their monopoly control of a limited number of specific spices.

All of the following were sources of disappointment to the Europeans who arrived in Asia in the 6th and 17th centuries EXCEPT

Asia Civilization seemed materially impoverished

What type of ships did Vasco De gama sail in on his voyage to India?

Caravel ships

During the reign of what Ming emperor did the chinese launch commercial expeditions to southeast Asia, Africa, and Persia?

Yunglo

Why were the Portuguese unwilling to exchange Bullion for products within the Asian commercial system?

The doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued against negative trade balances.

Which of the following reasons is at least in part responsible for the peopling of the Yangzi region in the southern part of China during the Ming era?

The introduction of crops from the americas that could be cultivated on inferior soils that did not require irrigation.

Which if the following was a reform instituted by the first ming emperor to reduce court factionalism and the power of the scholar-gentry?

Corrupt or incompetent members of the bureaucracy were punished by being beaten on the bar buttocks.

In what way did the dutch and English participation within the Asian sea trading network change by the middle decades of the 17th century?

For both the dutch and the English, peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than the forcible control and the monopolies were aimed at European rather than asian rivals.

What was the initial Portuguese response to the encounter at Calicut?

To apply military force to obtain desired Asian products.

Which of the following statements concerning Ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most accurate?

Despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power of the rural landlords led to increased tenancy and landless laborers.

The portuguese won a major sea battle over a combined fleet of Egyptian and Indian vessels in 1509 at?

Diu

What was the nature of the sea routes in the Asian trading network?

Most of the navigation was along the coastlines.

How successful was the portuguese monopoly on Asian products?

Though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the Portuguese lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monopoly.

What was the significance of the mainland kingdoms and island states of southeast Asia that surrounded the three great manufacturing zones of the Asian sea trading network?

These regions fed raw materials, precious metals and forest products, into the trading network.

Which of the following reforms was NOT introduced by the first Ming emperor?

Family influence in the selection of men to the chinese bureaucracy was eliminated.

Which of the following was NOT a European contribution to the Asian sea-trading network?

The establishment of an exchange of new crops and diseases similar to the "columbian exchange" with the americas.

The first ming emperor was

Hongwu

Why did the earliest of the Japanese military centralizers accept Christian Missionaries?

Christianity was seen as a counterforce to the buddhist orders that opposed the imposition of central rule.

Among which of the following groups did Roman Catholic missionaries enjoy some success?

Outcaste groups in Indian coastal regions

In what sense was the Spanish conversion of the Filipinos similar to their experience in the Americas?

Like the Amerindians, the Filipinos' brand of christianity represented a creative blend of earlier beliefs and practices with christianity.

Which of the following was one of the crucial points in the Asian sea-trading network where trade converged?

The straits of malacca

Which of the following items was more likely to be exchanged within the ports of each of the main trading zone rather than over greater distances between zones?

Rice

Which of the following products was NOT one of the products associated with the chinese zone of the asian sea trading network?

cotton textiles

What peoples had preceded the Portuguese in entering the markets of south and southeast asia?

Muslims

Which of the following was not a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the 17th century?

The japanese elite abandoned all contact with western learning and technological advance.

In what way did the Jesuit missionaries maintain their positions at the court of the mind emperors?

By demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skills.

Which of the following was NOT one of the three military centralizers of Japan?

Hiata Ashikaga

Who succeeded the Portuguese as the most successful European entrant into the Asian sea-trading network?

Holland

Why did the portuguese believe they could successfully enter the asian sea-trading by force?

The portuguese had fewer ships, but they were more maneuverable and better armed than those of their asian opponents.

Where was the chief Dutch trading fortress and port in southeast asia?

Batavia

What raw materials were most highly valued in the asian sea-trading network?

Spices

What trade did the Portuguese intend to monopolize within the asian trading-network?

spices

Which of the following was NOT one of the early modern islamic empires?

Abbasid

Which of the following does NOT represent a similarity among three Muslim early modern empires?

Each empire was based on religion and its society was oriented toward domination of the Mullahs.

Prior to the Mongol Invasions of their empire, the abbasid dynasty was dominated by

the Seljuk Turks

The original base of Ottoman Turks was

Antolia

The Ottomans conquered Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire in

1453

Which of the following statements concerning Ottoman naval power is most accurate?

Powerful Ottoman galley fleets captured major island bases in the eastern Mediterranean, but were unable to prevent western advances in the Indian Ocean.

The Janissaries were

Slave troops of the Ottoman forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territories.

What permitted the Janissaries to gain a position of prominence in the Ottoman Empire?

Their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic Turkish cavalry.

The head of the Ottoman central bureaucracy was the

vizier

What was the principle of succession within the Ottoman Empire?

Like earlier Islamic dynasties, the Ottoman Empire lacked a principle of succession, a fact that led to protracted warfare among prospective successors.

One of the most beautiful of the Ottoman mosques of Constantinople was the

Suleymaniye

What did the Ottomans do to constantinople following its fall 1453?

Soon after its conquest, the Ottoman sultan undertook the restoration and beautification of constantinople.

In what way were the artisans of constantinople similar to their counterparts in the west?

Like their counterparts in medieval european towns, the artisans were organized into guilds

What was the chosen language of the Ottoman court

Turkish

How did the Ottoman dynasty compare to other ruling families?

The ottoman dynasty lasted for over 600 years, a feat matched by no other ruling family.

Which of the following was NOT a cause for the decline of the Ottoman Empire?

The addition of European military technology such as light artillery made the janissaries so powerful that they could challenge the authority of the sultan.

On the sea, the Ottoman galleys were eclipsed by Western naval power as early as the

16th century

What European nation first threatened the Ottoman monopoly of trade with east Africa and India?

Portugal

Which of the following was NOT a result of the Ottoman loss of monopoly over the Indian trade?

Bullion caused by a negative balance of trade flowed out of the Ottoman empire to the west

Which of the following groups represented such extreme conservatism within the Ottoman Empire that reform was frustrated?

Janissaries

Which of the following represents A difference between the origins of the Ottomans and the Safavids?

The Safavids represented the Shi'ite strain of Islam.

The center of the Safavid Empire was the modern-day state of

Iran

The Safavid dynasty had its origins in the 14th century in a family devoted to what variant of Islam?

Sufi

In what year was the first Safavid declared shah?

1501

Followers of the Safavids' followers were called

Red heads

The first Safavid shah was

Isma'il

Why was the battle of Chaldiran in 1514 so important?

The Safavids were dealt a devastating defeat that checked the westwards advance of Shi'ism and decimated the ranks of the Turkic warriors who had built the Safavid Empire.

The safavid empire reached its greatest extent under Shah

Abbas the the great

What was the status of the Turkic Chiefs under the Safavid Shahs?

like the Ottomans, the Turkish chiefs were gradually transformed into a warrior nobility with assigned villages and peasant labor.

After Chaldiran, the official language of the Safavid Empire became

Persian

The capital of the Safavid Empire under Abbas the great was

Isfahan

How did the Safavid economy compare to that of the Ottomans?

The Ottoman empire benefited int he short run from non muslim traders (christians and jews) who had extensive contacts with overseas empires that the Safavid empire lacked.

What led to the rapid demise of the Safavid empire?

Like the Ottoman empire, the lack of a principle of succession led Abbas the Great to eliminate all capable rivals, leaving no capable ruler following his death.

The immediate successor of the safavid dynasty in persia was

Nadir Khan Afshar

The founder of the Mughal dynasty was

Babur

Where was Babur Born?

Central asia

Which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of Babur was NOT accurate?

He reformed the ineffective Lodi bureaucracy to create a streamlined administration.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the reign of Humayan?

Despite the seeming stability of Babur's reign, his son Humayan was exiled by 1540 and forced to fight to restore the Mughal rule.

Which of the following statements concerning the reign of Akbar is NOT accurate?

He attempted to purify Islam by removing Hindu influences

What was the critical feature of Akbar's new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi?

It attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling Hindus and Muslims.

What was the outcome of the Din-i-Ilah?

By Akbar's death in 1605, the Din-i-Ilah was rejected by both muslims and Hindus.

Which of the following statements concerning the economy of the Mughal Empire is most accurate?

European traders bought products from throughout asia to exchange for the subcontinent's famed cotton textiles.

What was the state of the Mughal dynasty at the outset of the reign of Aurangzeb?

The Mughal bureaucracy was bloated and corrupt, the army was backward in weaponry and tactics, and the peasants and Artisians has seen living standards fall.

What were the goals of Aurangzeb?

He was determined to extend Mughal control over the whole of the indian sub-continent and believed it was his duty to purify indian islam.

What was the impact of Aurangzeb's religious practices?

His practices gravely weakened the internal alliances between Hindus and Muslims and disrupted the social peace that Akbar had established.

What was the State of the Mughal Empire following Aurangzeb's death in 1707?

The empire was far larger than earlier, but control and state revenues passed increasingly to regional lords who gave little more than tribute payments to the emperors.

Which of the following statements concerning the relationships of the muslim empires to the west was NOT accurate?

The absence of minority peoples within the empire left them without commercial and cultural contacts with the west.

Where is the Taj Mahal?

India

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