3-3-11 U.S. California
|United States||world's fourth largest producer of wine, and claims the world's fifth highest acreage of land under vine|
|California||produces approximately 90% of all American wine, followed by Washington, Oregon, and New York|
|Vitis Labrusca|| Concord |
|AVA||American Viticultural Area- in theory is supposed to demarcate appellations based on distinctive geographical, physical, and climactic features|
As legal appellations, an AVA is only an indication of geographic origin, and does not require producers to adhere to any additional guidelines in the vineyard or the winery
|TTB|| Tax and Trade Bureau, a new federal bureau created by the Homeland Security act of 2002|
Oversees the AVA system
|If region lists AVA||a minimum of 85% of grapes used to produce the wine must have originated in stated region|
|if labeled by county, state, or country||a minimum of 75% of grapes used to produce the wine must have originated in stated region|
|Exceptions if labeled by state||CA & OR- wines labeled by state name are required to be made solely from grapes grown in these states|
|Wines labeled by single vineyard||must contain minimum of 95% of grapes grown in the stated vineyard|
|If American or imported wine uses vintage date||wine must carry an appellation smaller than a country|
|vintage rules if wine labeled by AVA||a minimum of 95% of wine must come from the stated vintage|
|vintage rules if labeled by state or county||a minimum of 85% of wine must come from stated vintage|
|varietal designation||wine must contain a minimum of 75% of stated varietal|
|exception for varietal designation||Vitis Labrusca grapes, like Concord, are an exception, and need only comprise a minimum 51% of a varietal wine|
|Alcohol content|| must be stated on label, with margin of +/- 1.5%|
As an alternative, wine in the 7-14% abv range may simply be labeled as "table wine" or "light wine"
|Also required by law|| government health warning|
Phrase "contains sulfites" (provided they are present in a concentration of 10 parts per million or more
Name and address of bottler
|Estate Bottled||100% of wine must come from grapes grown on land owned or controlled by the winery|
In addition, winery and all vineyards used in the production of an estate-bottled wine must be located within the same AVA
Best example: the 329,000 acre Northern Sonoma AVA, which comprises all of the county's individual AVA's except Sonoma Valley and Carneros, proposed by Gallo of Sonoma, who may now blend across pre-existing AVA boundaries for its estate-bottled wines
|Major winegrowing regions of California (Major 4 AVAs)|| North Coast|
|South Coast AVA|| covers land in the counties stretching from Los Angeles to San Diego|
has made little impact in terms of fine wine production
Includes counties of Riverside and San Diego
|Central Valley|| inland area|
source of 75% of state's wine
not considered AVA
|Meritage|| term trademarked by the Meritage Alliance, is used by producers to indicate a premium blend in which no grape accounts for more than 90% of the wine. |
Meritage wines may be red or white, but must be produced from Bordeaux varietals.
|North Coast|| the epicenter of fine wine production in California|
includes the counties of Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, Lake, Solano, and Marin
|Napa Valley soils||very diverse: volcanic, alluvial, and maritime soil types, ranging from well-drained gravel loam to dense clays to the thin, rocky soils of the hillside vineyards|
|"mountain fruit"||prized for density, dark fruit and concentration, and its ability to retain a good acid structure through intense ripeness|
|Howell Mountain AVA|| Napa's first sub-appellation to receive its own AVA|
Produces benchmark mountain wines
|Valley floor soils|| topsoil is deeper and the valley fruit tends to produce a more elegant and supple style of Cabernet, with less intensity of color|
Rutherford AVA exemplifies this style
|Sub-AVAs of Napa Valley|| Calistoga |
Diamond Mountain District
Spring Mountain District
Stags Leap District
Wild Horse Valley
Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley
|Sonoma County||lies between Napa County and the Pacific Coast, and is bordered on the north by Mendocino and Lake and the south by Marin, Solano, and Contra Costa|
|AVAs of Sonoma||many cover much larger area than those of Napa, and there is a commensurate variation in climate and soil throughout the region|
|Carneros AVA||windy, foggy, a cool Region I area|
|Alexander Valley and Dry Creek Valley AVAs|| Considered Region III. |
warm northern areas
|Sonoma Coast AVA||coolest temperatures found here, in northern stretches where altitude, cold ocean air and persisten coastal fog combine to keep temperatures down. Pinot Noir and Chardonnay thrive here with cool-climate renditions of Rhone varietals. |
However, as the Sonoma Coast contains nearly 500,000 acres, the more inland and southern areas within it can experience a warmer Region II climate, and even true coastal vineyards, if above the marine fog layer, may produce bold wines of concentration and power rather than elegance and focus.
|Russian River Valley AVA||follows the river southwest from the town of Healdsburg|
is highly regarded for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay made in fruity, forward styles, yet the appellation's more moderate climate may ultimately prove most hospitable to Rhone grapes and Zinfandel
Fertile alluvial soils, such as "Goldridge" sandy loam, characterize valley.
Chalk Hill and Green Valley are essentially sub-AVAs
Coastal producers of note include David Hirsch, Marcassin and Peay, whereas Dehlinger, Joseph Swan, Rochioli, and Williams-Selyem are prominent names in Russian River Valley
|Northern AVAs with warmer Region III climates||Alexander Valley, Dry Creek Valley, Rockpile, and Knights Valley- located to the north and east of Healdsburg|
Knights Valley is warmest AVA in county
Bordeaux grape varieties, particularly Cabernet, are most prominent in the gravelly soils of Alexander Valley and Knights Valley.
Alexander Valley Cabernet Sauvignon tends to show a more herbaceous character and less body than its Napa counterparts, but Knights Valley wines, such as Peter Michael's "Les Pavots," can be very similar in style.
|Dry Creek Valley and Rockpile AVAs||known for ripe, powerful styles of Zinfandel, aged in either French or American oak|
|Sonoma Valley AVA||county's most established region|
situated between Mayacamas mountains and Sonoma Mountains and runs nearly parallel to Napa Valley
Zinfandel, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Cabernet Sauvignon successful in region
Like Napa, Sonoma Valley's temperature gets progressively warmer as one travels north, though exception is Bennett Valley AVA
|Bennett Valley AVA|| sub-AVA in the northwestern sector of the valley|
favors Merlot, as it is too cool to routinely ripen Cabernet Sauvignon
|Carneros AVA|| cool, windswept hills of Carneros form the valley's southern extrimity at the San Pablo Bay. |
The Champagne house of Taittinger and the Cava producer Cordoniu both set up American sparkling wine estates in Carneros in the 1980's, following the pioneering example of Gloria Ferrer
|AVAs of Sonoma County|| Los Carneros|
Russian River Valley
Green Valley of Russian River Valley
Dry Creek Valley
|Mendocino||Norht of Sonoma County, Mendocino's best winegrowing regions are centered at the confluence of the Russian and Navarro Rivers in the southern portion of the county|
|Mendocino AVA||has stricter boundaries than the county appellation, lines both rivers, and encompasses the AVAs of Anderson Valley, Potter Valley, Redwood Valley, McDowell Valley, Yorkville Highlands, Mendocino Ridge, Dos Rios, and Cole Ranch|
|Smallest AVA in America||Cole Ranch|
|Cole Ranch and McDowell Valley AVAs||essentially monopole AVAs of the Esterlina and McDowell Valley wineries, respectively|
|Anderson Valley AVA||offers one of California's coolest climates, as cool ocean air and fog trails inland along the path of the Navarro River, framed by steep hills|
As testament to th Anderson Valley's cool, marginal climate, the Champagne house of Louis Roederer established its American operations there rather than in Carneros, where many competitors landed- and today produce one of the more elegant styles of sparkling wine in California
In addition to the classic sparkling varietals, Riesling and Gewurztraminer perform well
|Mendocino AVA||inland areas, particularly around Ukiah, are noticeably hotter|
|Mendocino Ridge AVA||stretches southward from the Navarro River along the coast, but the appellation is restricted to vineyards that are at least 1200 feet above sea level. Zinfandel thrives in the sun above the fog line|
|Lake County|| smallest wine-producing county in the North Coast|
most prominent AVA in this warm inland region is Clear Lake AVA
Lake County AVAs
Red Hills Lake County
|AVAs of Mendocino County|| Mendocino|
|Central Coast AVA||spans the entirety of California's coastline from San Francisco Bay in the north to Santa Barbara County in the south. Directly east and south of San Francisco Bay are the AVAs of Livermore Valley, Santa Cruz Mountains, Ben Lomond Mountain, Santa Clara Valley, San Ysidro District, and the sprawling San Francisco Bay AVA itself|
Livermore Valley AVA (in Alameda/ Contra Costa Counties)
Santa Cruz Mountains AVA (in Santa Cruz, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties)
Ben Lomond Mountain AVA (in Santa Cruz County)
Santa Clara Valley AVA (in Santa Clara County)
San Ysidro District AVA (in Santa Clara County)
San Francisco Bay AVA (in counties of San Francisco, San Benito, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz)
Counties of Central Coast AVA
San Luis Obispo
|Santa Cruz Mountains AVA||immediately south of the city of San Francisco, provides a cool coastal climate, where high-altitude vineyards are interspersed between miles of redwood forest|
Ridge's Monte Bello vineyard and the original Bonny Doon Estate Vineyard, an eventual victim of Pierce's Disease, are among the Santa Cruz Mountains' most celebrated parcels
|Livermore Valley AVA||warm area acheives success with Sauvignon Blanc; Wente is the most notable producer within appellation|
|Monterey AVA||this area and the valleys of Salinas and Carmel extensively planted with vines in wake of Napa's success. |
The cool coastal are promised success, offering one of California's longest growing seasons, yet much of the region's output ends up in bulk blends from the Central Valley. Chardonnay is dominant grape, accounting for more than 50% of plantings in the Monterey AVA.
|Santa Lucia Highlands AVA||Pinot Noir is highlighted here, home to Gary's vineyard|
|Mount Harlan AVA||within San Benito County in the Gabilan Mountains to the east, where Calera produces acclaimed wines from Pinot Noir|
|Chalone AVA||Appellation dominated by the producer of the same name in Monterey, lies to the south in the range of the Gabilan Mtns|
|Monterey County AVAs|| Monterey |
Santa Lucia Highlands
Chalone ( part in San Benito County)
San Antonio Valley
|San Luis Obispo||Producers in Giant Paso Robles AVA (614,000 acres) here are currently debating proposals to divide unwieldy appellation into as many as eleven distinct sub-regions, although a competing plan petitions for just one: a wooded Westside sub-appellation characterized by cooler marine air funneled through the Templeton Gap, and more prevalent limestone and calcareous soils. East of the Salinas River, the soils structure is sandier, and the climate in general is warmer and more arid. |
Zinfandel has a long history in the " Pass of the Oaks," and Cabernet Sauvignon became increasingly important as the area saw an infusion of large-scale wineries in the 1980's. Rhone varietals are growing in importance in the region: Gary Eberle planted the first commercial Syrah vines in the state in Paso Robles, and the nursery at Tablas Creek, a project owned in part by Cht. Beaucastel, provided clonal material from the Rhone Valley to interested producers across the state.
Hospices du Rhone, the world's largest Rhone wine celebration, is held annually in the area.
|Edna Valley AVA||cool coastal climate appropriate for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay|
|Santa Barbara County||California's coastline sharply bends here at Point Conception, trending east-west rather than north-south. Santa Barbara's valleys, including the Santa Maria Valley AVA and the Santa Ynez Valley AVA, trail from east to west through the San Rafael and Santa Ynez Mountains, paralleling the coastline.|
|Santa Ynez Valley AVA||The AVAs of Santa Rita Hills and Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara are located here.|
|Sta. Rita Hills AVA||In early 2006, a legal dispute with the Chilean winery of the same name led Sta. Rita Hills to legally abbreviate its appellation name.|
|Santa Barbara||Despite a lenghty history of viticulture, interest in winemaking has taken off in the last several decades, reinvigorated by the success of Richard Sanford's original vineyard in the Sta. Rita Hills.|
|Santa Maria Valley AVA||giant Bien Nacido Vineyard here was planted premium varietals-principally Pinot Noir and Chardonnay- in the mid 1970's, not so long after Sanford & Benedict was established|
|Santa Barbara County||Region I maritime climate and lengthy growing season- the longest in California|
Lauded for cultivation of Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, and Rhone varietals
Public awareness of Santa Barbara wines and of Pinot Noir in general, skyrocketed in the wake of Alexander Payne's 2005 film Sideways, a paean to the region and grape
|AVAs of San Luis Obispo County|| Paso Robles|
|AVAs of Santa Barbara County|| Santa Maria Valley (Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo Counties)|
Santa Ynez Valley
Sta. Rita Hills
Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara
|Central Valley||bulk of California's wine is produced here in the state's vast, hot, and extensively irrigated agricultural area divided between the northern Sacramento Valley and southern San Joaquin Valley- the latter encompasses over 100,000 acres under vine|
generally divided between Region IV and Region V heat summation zones- temperatures most suitable for fortified wines, table grapes, and raisins
Gallo, second largest producer in the world, is headquartered at Modesto; half of the Central Valley's wine issues from Gallo's facilities
As evidenced by the wines of Gallo and other Central Valley wine giants, including Franzia (owned by the Wine Group) and Bronco Wine Company, most Central Valley production is of bulk wine quality- low in cost and low on character of site. Thus despite its extensice area and huge production, the Central Valley has relatively few AVAs. The largest and most important Central Valley AVA is Lodi, home to over 20% of California's total wine grape production
|Lodi AVA||located in Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties|
largest and most important Central Valley AVA
home to over 20% of California's total wine grape production
located on the western edge of the Sacramento River Delta, is slightly cooler than much of the Central Valley, due to the influence of a gap in the coastal ranges, which pulls the coastal air inland from the San Francisco Bay
Home to both large, value-oriented brands, like Sutter Home and Robert Mondavi Woodbridge, and small boutique wineries, many whom specialize in old-vine Zinfandel production.
Lodi includes seven sub-appellations:
Alta Mesa, Borden Ranch, Mokelumne River, Cosumnes River, Jahant, Sloughhouse, and Clement Hills
|Other AVAs of note in Central Valley|| Dunnigan Hills (Yolo County)|
Clarksburg (in Sacramento, Solano, and Yolo Counties)
Capay Valley (Yolo County)
Merritt Island (Yolo County)
|Sierra Foothils AVA||located in Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Mariposa, Nevada, Placer, Tuolumne, Yuba Counties|
located to the east of Sacramento and Lodi, on the western edge of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in teh heart of California's 19th century gold rush territory
This fragmented region is divided into several sub-AVAs:
California Shenandoah Valley
temperature is dependent upon altitude
|Shenandoah Valley Ava||lowest and hottest vineyards here|
|Sierra Foothills AVA||Chewy, spicy, concentrated Zinfandel, sometimes sourced from vines dating back before Prohibition, is the most acclaimed style|
|University of California at Davis||located just west of Sacramento|
has been guiding light for California's wine producers and home to one of the world's most highly regarded institutes of viticulture and oenology
many of America's winemakers are graduated of its programs, and Davis' influence on winemaking and viticultural practices in the US cannot be underestimated - but not all of its influence has been positive
when phylloxera struck California in the 1980's, it attacked the now-infamous AXR-1 rootstock - a supposedly resistant rootstock supplied to the state's growers by Davis. Officially, the institution deemed phylloxera to have mutated.
Larger criticisms levied at the institution by some question its role in the modernization, standardization and manipulation of both viticulture and wine
|Sub-AVAs of Lodi|| Mokelumne River (San Joaquin County)|
Cosumnes River (San Joaquin County)
Jahant (San Joaquin County)
Borden Ranch (in Sacramento, San Joaquin counties)
Alta Mesa (in Sacramento County)
Clements Hills (San Joaquin County)
|Sub-AVAs of Sierra Foothills|| California Shenandoah Valley (in Amador, El Dorado counties)|
El Dorado (El Dorado County)
Fair Play (El Dorado County)
Fiddletown (Amador County)
North Yuba (Yuba County)
|Map of Napa AVAs|
|Map of Sonoma AVAs|
|map of mendocino avas|
|David Abreu||Location St. Helena, CA, USA |
Appellation Rutherford AVA
Key people: David Abreu, viticulturist
Brad Grimes, winemaker
Known for Madrona Ranch cabernet
Varietal cabernet sauvignon
Other product olive oil
David Abreu, a third-generation rancher from St. Helena, California and graduate of the Viticulture and Enology program at UC Davis, founded Abreu Vineyards in 1980 after working briefly at Caymus Vineyards. That year he formed David Abreu Vineyard Management, working with pioneering winemaker Richard Forman to manage ranching operations at Inglenook Winery.
Abreu and Forman became friends and traveled frequently to Bordeaux, where they observed French winemaking operations. They brought back French rootstock, trellis designs, and Bordelais planting and farming techniques.
Abreu's fame spread as Other wineries hired Abreu's company to plant and manage ranching operations. By 1999 he was considered the premier viticulturist for premium grapes in Napa Valley. Abreu's company has raised grapes for some of the most respected wineries in Napa Valley including Blankiet Estate, Staglin Family Vineyards, Jones Family Vineyards, Bressler Vineyards, Colgin Cellars, Pahlmeyer Vineyard, Sloan Estate, Bryant Family Vineyard, Fisher Vineyards, Oakford Vineyards, Araujo Estate Wines, Grace Family Vineyard, Viader Vineyards, and Harlan Estate, among others.
Label of Abreu 1993 Cabernet blendIn the late 1990s Abreu and Forman jointly purchased and planted the 20-acre (8.1 ha) Thorevilos Vineyard. They released Abreu's first cabernet from that vineyard in 2000.
In 2006 Abreu was hired to replant vineyards at Screaming Eagle Winery and Vineyards.
|araujo estate wines||Since 1971, some of California's most ageworthy Cabernet Sauvignons have been made from grapes grown at the Eisele Vineyard, located on benchland near the northern end of the Napa Valley, just east of Calistoga. Protected by the Palisades Mountains to the north and cooled by westerly breezes from the Chalk Hill Gap, this 38 acre vineyard is planted on warm cobbly soils that produce a low yielding crop of exceptionally concentrated fruit. |
Bart and Daphne Araujo acquired the Eisele Vineyard in 1990. Committed to producing estate grown wines of the highest caliber and distinction, they constructed a small winery and barrel-aging caves on the property, and employ organic and biodynamic farming protocols in the vineyard. The Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and Syrah wines produced in this remarkable place have a rare combination of forthright character, deep concentration without any sense of heaviness, and the capacity to develop profound complexity with age.
|arietta winery||Super premium winery owned by Fritz and Caren Hatton, featuring site-specific Bordeaux-style blends handmade in small quantities by noted winemaker Andy Erickson.|
|Barnett Vineyards||A small, boutique winery located at 2000' elevation atop of Spring Mountain. Known for its designate Cabernet Sauvignons from the Spring Mountain appellation.|
With passion and patience, Fiona and Hal Barnett created this vineyard and winery in 1983 with the intent of producing small amounts of hand crafted Cabernet Sauvignon wines from their estate. Since the first vintage of Barnett Vineyards, Spring Mountain has proven to deserve it's own AVA and become known as a unique microclimate, producing exceptional Cabernet Sauvignons and Merlots.
The vineyards are located at the top of Spring Mountain, at elevation 2,000ft, and planted on steep terraces that follow the contour of the land. In some places, the grade averages in excess of 35%. Mountainside farming is very challenging. The vines must struggle to reach nutrients and water in the soil and, as a result, yield only one to two tons per acre. The elements of sun, temperature, and well-drained porous soils give an advantageous water stress to the vines and contribute to the depth, richness and character of the wines. Grapes are harvested by hand; vineyard row by row, as optimum ripeness and maturity is reached. Fermentation is done in small batches.
|Beaulieu Vineyards||Beaulieu Vineyard (BV) is one of Napa Valley's most historic wineries, founded in 1900 by Georges de Latour. The Georges de Latour Private Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon has been the benchmark California Cabernet for decades, and BV continues to be a leader in the Carneros and Rutherford AVA's. Today, Winemaker Joel Aiken continues the great tradition of finely crafted wines handed down to him by legendary BV winemaker Andre Tchelistcheff; the Maestro.|
|Beaulieu Vineyards||Initially a purchase of 4 acres (1.6 ha) of land in 1900, Beaulieu Vineyard derives its name from the French phrase "Quel beau lieu" which translates to English as "What a beautiful place". Legend has it that Fernande uttered these words when she first saw the land. The following year, they purchased a nearby winery originally built by California State Senator Seneca Ewer in 1885. De Latour's knowledge about phylloxera which at the time had ravaged many of Napa Valley's vineyards and his decision to import a rootstock variety resistant to the pest helped cement his stature as one of the early pioneers of California's wine industry.|
When Prohibition in the United States began in 1920, most wineries in the country were forced out of operation. However, Beaulieu obtained a contract to supply sacramental wine to churches across the country. The demand for such wine increased dramatically during the years of Prohibition and the winery repeatedly expanded. By the Repeal of Prohibition in 1933, production had grown to over one million gallons per year.
Following Repeal of Prohibition, Beaulieu hired Andre Tchelistcheff from France as winemaker and the quality of its wines increased significantly. Tchelistcheff also became a mentor to other important winemakers such as Mike Grgich (whose Chateau Montelena Chardonnay won the Judgment of Paris), Joe Heitz of Heitz Wine Cellars, and Robert Mondavi. By the 1940s, Beaulieu wines were served at all major White House functions.
In the mid-1940's, Beaulieu was owned by Marquis de Pins, whose wife was a member of the French wine-making de Latour family. This was noted in Life Magazine in an article on the debut ball at which their daughter was a debutante.
In the Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, the 1970 vintage of Beaulieu Vineyard George de Latour Private Reserve Cabernet Sauvignon received second place.
The winery was purchased by international conglomerate Heublein Inc., in 1969. Heublein was later acquired by RJR Nabisco, then sold to Grand Metropolitan in 1987. Grand Metropolitan became Diageo plc in 1997 through a merger with Guinness, and is now the largest multinational beer, wine and spirits company in the world.
|Diamond Creek Winery||Looking for a new direction of life? Then why not follow the example of Al Brounstein who, having made his fortune with his wholesale pharmaceutical business, decided to up sticks and plant a vineyard on Diamond Mountain in the Napa Valley? To keep as close to Al's story as possible, plant only vines propagated in your private nursery from smuggled cuttings, which you flew in from famed properties in Bordeaux, and don't equip yourself with any real knowledge of oenology before you start.|
It sounds crazy, but this is how Canadian millionaire Al Brounstein founded Diamond Creek Vineyards. He purchased the hillside plot at a knockdown price in an era that predated the development of California's cult Cabernets, back in 1967. Having cleared the scrub in 1968 he revealed a geologically diverse site, with volcanic soils lying alongside areas more gravelly, rocky and rich in iron. The vineyards were planted exclusively with Cabernet Sauvignon, the first vintage being 1972, made with the help of winemaker Jerry Luper, who stayed with Diamond Creek for twenty years. He was replaced by Phil Steinschriber who works with Brounstein to this day. The waters at Diamond Creek are obviously good, as the entrepreneurial Brounstein was well into his ninth decade when he passed away in 2006, leaving the running of Diamond Creek to his wife Boots, Steinschriber, consultants Dick Petersen and Al's own daughter, Heidi.
Together the team look after some very well tended vineyards, which Steinschriber has either vertically trellised, or sometimes on a Geneva Double Curtain, rather than the two wire system that was in place on his arrival. Harvest is manual, and there are an incredible number of tries, a necessity caused by variable ripening of fruit in the numerous different mesoclimates of Diamond Creek. The harvest may extend into November, the fruit finally brought into the winery for temperature-controlled fermentation in small tanks, with the current philosophy being to achieve the correct extraction of tannins for longevity without them completely dominating the palate.
There are four main vineyards at Diamond Creek, including the Lake Vineyard, and a small plot of Petit Verdot. Of the main vineyards, Volcanic Hill is the largest at just over 3 ha. Named for its pale grey volcanic soils which were deposited here by Mount Konocti millions of years before Al arrived, this is a warm, south-facing site which produces the most long lived of Diamond Creek's wines, and which may also include a little Petit Verdot, grown on a riverside plot on Diamond Creek, in the blend. Close by is Red Rock Terrace, also a warm site, despite being a little under 3 ha of north-facing vineyard. It was named for its red hued soils, the colour derived from its high iron content. The wines of Red Rock Terrace are reputed to be the more early drinking of the Diamond Creek portfolio, although in my experience all of these wines have a firm tannic structure that, like old-fashioned claret, positively demands time in the cellar. This is remarkable considering how the Diamond Creek style has changed over the years, apparently shifting towards more open, accessible wines! The third vineyard, Gravelly Meadow, is a cooler site peppered with the stones and pebbles which indicate that in prehistory this was a river bed, although now it is best known for Diamond Creek's most elegant, finely structured wines.
The Lake Vineyard, the fourth and smallest plot, is a lakeside vineyard of about 0.3 ha. It has a cool mesoclimate, and as such the wine of Lake Vineyard is bottled infrequently; at present only eight vintages have seen a Lake Vineyard wine produced. Naturally this has an effect on price, which is two or three times higher than the other Diamond Creek wines. And they're already pricy; expect to pay a three figure sum per bottle, whether you're working in dollars, euros or sterling. That is unless, of course, you prefer to buy your Diamond Terrace at the Napa Valley Wine Auction where, in 2003, a vertical covering vintages from 1978 through to 1994 sold for a cool $90 000 - that's $10 000 per bottle. And that's not as as much as ten bottles of the Lake Vineyard fetched in 2002; $300 000. These aren't prices you see on wine-searcher.com every day.
|Blankiet Estate||Blankiet Estate is located on the western foothills of the Mayacamas mountain range over-looking Yountville in the Napa Valley of California. Created in 1996 by Claude and Katherine Blankiet, sixteen acres have been developed by renowned viticulturist David Abreu. |
The vineyards, known as Paradise Hills, are stunningly beautiful with gorgeous views of the valley. Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot are planted on volcanic soil. Merlot is planted on a deep layer of alluvial clay deposited by streams draining the mountain range high above. Sustainable farming is practiced and the human hand is the connection between vines and wines. Our artisanal production is less than a thousand cases of a flagship proprietary red wine, Blankiet Estate, and a few hundred cases of a Saint Emilion inspired red wine named Rive Droite.
The first eight vintages were made by the legendary Helen Turley. Then Martha McClellan-Levy took over winemaking with the 2006, 2007 and 2008 vintages assisted by world famous oenologist Michel Rolland. Vinification is done in a state of the art winery right on the property. One hundred percent new French oak barrels are used for every vintage. Our wines are aged on their lees for over two years and are bottled without fining or filtration.
Robert Parker validates our terroir, stating that the wines we produce "are world class, combining the extraordinary power of the site with unbelievable elegance and definition".
|Bond Estate||Beginning production in 1997, Harlan founded the Bond Estates, in collaboration with winemaker Robert Levy and vineyard manager Mary Maher, with the intent to identify and produce wine from "grand crus" of Napa Valley. Erroneously described as second wines of Harlan Estate, the Bond winery is located on the western hills of Oakville.|
From small separate plots there is produced terroir-specific Cabernet Sauvignon wines, named Melbury from East of St. Helena, St. Eden from Northeast of Oakville, Vecina from Southwest of Oakville, Pluribus from west of St. Helena and the blended second wine Matriarch, each wine with the limited production of approximately 700 cases.
"Bond is our covenant with select vineyard estates and shred commitment to produce only the best expression of the land." So says the Bond mission/vision statement and the product of this covenant has been five terroir-specific Cabernet Sauvignon wines:
Melbury -- from northeast of Rutherford
St. Eden -- from north of Oakville
Vecina -- from west of Oakville
Pluribus -- from west of Calistoga
Quella -- the newest of the bunch; from north of Rutherford
In this post we will examine the winemaking philosophy and the practices employed in the production of these wines. The material presented herein draws heavily on the talk given by Paul Roberts, Bond Estate Manager, to attendees at the Bond Estates tasting on March 4th.
Bill Harlan, the driving force behind Bond Estates, thinks of Napa in terms of the French appellation system: Villages; Premier Crus; and Grand Crus. Harlan thinks that they have found and exploited five of the possible 25 Napa Grand Cru sites in the production of their wines.
The winemaking team will not bring a wine to market before engaging in extensive experimentation and testing. A wine will undergo a minimum of three years experimentation before a vintage is released.
The Bond vineyard manager is Mary Hall and she supervises a staff of 55 year-round employees. Each site averages 8 acres in size and vineyard production is approximately 2 to 2.5 acres per ton. Only the best grapes make it into the wine. The grapes are picked on one of up to 15 picker passes through the vineyard and only perfect fruit is picked on each pass. The grapes are double sorted, once in the vineyard and then again at the sorting table.
The goal of the venture is to ensure that differences between the wines are a reflection of the differences in terroir so, to the extent possible, winemaking procedures are the same for all of the Bond wines. Fifty percent of the vinified juice goes into the Bond wines and the remainder is blended into Matriarch, a label designed for early drinking.
|Brown Estate||Brown Estate Vineyards, believed to be the first Black-owned estate winery in the Napa Valley, is best known as one of the most well-regarded zinfandel producers of that region. In addition to zinfandel, Brown Estate produces cabernet sauvignon, chardonnay, and petite sirah.|
Founded in 1995 by the sister and brother team of Deneen and David Brown, Brown Estate produced its first Napa Valley zinfandel in 1996 after the family had been farming grapes - and selling them to established winemakers (including Mike Grgich of Grgich Hills Estate) - for more than ten years. When Coral Brown joined her siblings in 2001, the enterprise became an all-encompassing family affair.
In 1980, parents Bassett Brown (originally from Jamaica) and Marcela Abrahams Brown (originally from Panama) acquired 500 acres (2.0 km2) in the Chiles Valley AVA of the Napa Valley after being informed by local family friends that the property was for sale. Abandoned for some ten years prior, the land and its two structures - an 1859 stone and redwood barn and an 1885 Queen Anne Victorian home - were derelict. The senior Browns cut roads and brought in plumbing and electricity, ultimately earning an award from the Napa County Historical Society for their restoration of the residence structure. In 1985 they planted their first vineyard on the property, approximately nine acres of zinfandel. The Chiles Valley microclimate, characterized by extreme temperature shifts throughout the course of each day, proved perfectly suited to cultivating zinfandel grapes, and the Brown family's fruit soon gained tremendous popularity among zinfandel producers such as Green & Red and T-Vine Cellars, both of whom purchased Brown Estate fruit for many years. As well, the Browns sold cabernet sauvignon to the famed Mike Grgich. It was through a series of apprenticeships with winemakers who were working with his fruit that David Brown - who by then had been farming his family's vineyards for five years - began learning the art and science of winemaking.
In the mid-nineties, as a result of rising demand for their fruit, Deneen and David, then both residing on the vineyard property, made the decision to produce wine under their own label. Because they had no winery facility on site, they secured a custom crush contract with Rombauer Vineyards in Saint Helena, and for six years they produced their wines at the Rombauer facility. On January 29, 2000, Brown Estate debuted their first two vintages of Napa Valley zinfandel, 1996 and 1997, at the annual Zinfandel Advocates and Producers (ZAP) tasting at Fort Mason in San Francisco. ZAP is the largest single varietal wine tasting event in the world, and the Brown offerings were very well-received by the trade and public alike, thereby establishing Brown Estate as a winery to watch in the arena of Napa Valley zinfandel. Simultaneously, in the January 31, 2000 issue of the Wine Spectator, the 1997 Brown Estate zinfandel received a score of 91 points.
 FireThen, in June 2000, tragedy struck when a fire broke out at the warehouse facility where Brown's wine library and recently bottled 1998 vintage were stored. With the exception of sixteen bottles - two that went to Robert M. Parker, Jr. for review, two that went to Christie's for auction, and twelve that the Browns had stored at home - all of their 1998 zinfandel was destroyed, as were the remaining cases of their first two vintages. The lost 1998 vintage left the Browns out of the zinfandel market for one whole year, a devastating setback that was mitigated only by the kindness of restaurant and retail accounts who held space on their wine lists and shelves for the next vintage of Brown zin. In order to bridge that gap, the Browns accelerated the release of their 1999 Napa Valley zinfandel, which they showed at ZAP in 2001. The previous month, in December 2000, Parker, the most influential wine critic in the world, gave the Brown 1998 zinfandel a score of 90, noting that his review was "of academic interest only" since all of the wine had perished in the fire. The loss of the 1998 vintage has kept Brown Estate's Napa Valley zinfandel bottlings on a perennially early release schedule.
 Winery and cave constructionMeanwhile, back at the ranch, the Browns and their small production of a few thousand cases slowly were being squeezed out of the Rombauer facility. In order to continue their now quite promising winemaking endeavor, they were compelled to establish a winery facility on their own property. The location of the old stone and redwood barn, still in its derelict state - doorless, windowless, and with a dirt floor - all but demanded development of an adjacent subterranean wine cave. Winery construction began in Summer of 2002 and by September of that year the old barn had a new lease on life as Brown Estate's on-site wine production facility. Brown was now a full-fledged estate winery. Soon production began increasing and eventually the barrel room in the lower level of the barn was filled to capacity, transforming the wine cave from notion to necessity. Excavation commenced in April 2004, and because the host hillside was solid granite, drilling alone was inadequate. For one solid year, muffled explosions rocked the Brown Estate property as one of the most unique wine caves in the Napa Valley literally was designed by dynamite.
Cave construction was completed in Summer 2005.
 MilestonesIn Fall 2010 the Brown family celebrated their 30th year in the Napa Valley, and Brown Estate's 15th crush. The family posted the following message on their Website to commemorate these occasions: This year we celebrate our thirtieth year in the Napa Valley, and Brown Estate's fifteenth crush. We thank all of you, with all of our hearts, for your continued enjoyment of our wines and your truly stupendous support of our once little endeavor. Each time you open and share a bottle of Brown Estate, you wrap your arms around us. It is an embrace that we cherish, a gesture that gives meaning to all of the passion and commitment we put into what we do. Thank you for making us a part of your lives, and for being a part of ours. Now onward & upward! The sky's the limit!
In November 2010, the Browns released the world's first hashtagged wine, their 2009 Brown Estate Napa Valley Zinfandel.
|Bryant Family Vineyards||Situated high above Lake Hennessey, Bryant Family Vineyard is one of a handful of Napa Valley vineyards that can claim the moderating influence of a large body of water.|
Winds blow over the mountains from the west, are drawn down to and across the cool waters of Lake Hennessey and travel directly up a natural chute to the Bryant Family Vineyard. This breezeway makes the vineyard unique and enhances the quality of fruit as the winds cool the grapes on hot summer days.
The uniqueness of the fruit is the basis for this special wine along with an outstanding winemaking team and brand new, gravity fed winery that was specifically designed and constructed for this vineyard.
There are just under 1000 cases of this extraordinary Cabernet Sauvignon produced from a vineyard on Pritchard Hill, a viticultural area most associated with one of Napa Valley's most conspicuous underachievers, Chappellet. Production of Bryant's Cabernet Sauvignon will drop to just over 600 cases in 1995 as one-third of the vineyard was recently replanted.
|Pritchard Hill Vineyard||Bob Long calls Pritchard Hill a "de facto" appellation, and he would be technically correct. While the area -- in the eastern hills above St. Helena and bounded by Highway 128 -- is not an official American Viticulture Area (AVA), it boasts some of the most famous names in American wine. Wineries such as Chappellet, Colgin and Bryant, dot its hillside. Yet, Pritchard Hill hasn't come close to AVA status.|
|Caymus Winery||Caymus Vineyards was founded in 1972 by Charles F. (Charlie) Wagner, Lorna Belle Glos Wagner and their son Charles J. (Chuck) Wagner on the family's Rutherford property. The Wagners took the name Caymus from the Mexican land grant known as Rancho Caymus, given to George Yount in 1836, which included what eventually became the town of Rutherford and much of the surrounding area. Caymus was also the name of a subgroup of Mishewal-Wappo Indians whose village was north of what is now the town of Yountville. |
The Wagners produced their first Cabernet Sauvignon from the 1972 vintage. Their first Special Selection (from outstanding Cabernet Sauvignon lots given extended barrel aging) was made from the 1975 vintage. Caymus has made Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon every year since its founding, and now focuses entirely on this variety. Special Selection is produced only in vintages that Chuck Wagner, who directs all of Caymus's vineyard and winemaking operations, feels are appropriate for this designation.
For both the Napa Valley and Special Selection bottlings, the goal is a balanced wine that tastes delicious when bottled but can improve with age. Chuck Wagner attributes the quality of the wines to farming and winemaking techniques developed over the decades.
|Dalla Valle||Dalla Valle Vineyards is a small, family-owned winery that was founded in 1986. The winery and vineyards are located on a plateau 400 feet above the valley floor, in the eastern hills of Oakville, Napa Valley. The combination of perfect sun exposure and the cooling marine influence from the Pacific Ocean make this an ideal site for world class winegrowing. Dalla Valle has reached an admirable level of acceptance in the last decade and produces some of the most sought out Cabernet Sauvignon and proprietary red wine in California. Wines made from Dalla Valle Vineyards are pure unbridled expressions of fruit at its most powerful and concentrated. These wines are of immense stature and richness with well-integrated tannin and acidity.|
Naoko Dalla Valle was born and raised in Kobe, Japan where her ancestors were involved in Sake making. Naoko and Gustav shared the vision of producing a world class wine. After Gustav's death, Naoko took on the sole responsibility for the operations of the vineyards and the winery. She has put together a formidable team of vineyard and enology specialists. All grape growing and winemaking operations are under her insightful vision and the commitment to maintain and improve the highest quality continues.
Gustav Dalla Valle was born and raised in Northern Italy. His family has been in the wine business for over 175 years. A true Renaissance man who had a love affair with diving all his life, he lived and traveled in many parts of the world including Europe, Haiti, Mustique and the United States. His love of scuba diving lead him to the creation of Undersea Industries, where he developed Scubapro, a manufacturer of sports diving apparatus and equipment. In 1982, he returned to the wine business with his wife, Naoko and they purchased their Oakville property and created Dalla Valle Vineyards. Gustav's exuberant personality touched many people in his lifetime. Gustav passed away in December of 1995.
Michel Rolland, the highly regarded consulting enologist from France, visits Dalla Valle Vineyard during the most critical times in the winemaking cycle: at harvest, when the master blend is developed and then once again to confirm the blend. He works closely with Naoko and has a keen understanding of both the vineyard and the cellar. His abilities as a master blender, his broad "world view" palate and understanding of terroir give Dalla Valle at added edge.
Fausto Cisneros, Vineyard Manager and Cellar Master, has been with Dalla Valle vineyards since 1990. He oversees all aspects of farming and also heads the cellar operations with his loyal vineyard crew have been continuously farming this vineyard for more than 15 years.
|Godmother|| 1 oz. Vodka|
1 oz. Amaretto Liqueur
Pour over ice and stir.
|Harvey Wallbanger|| 1 oz. Vodka|
1/2 oz. Galliano
4 oz. Orange Juice
Pour vodka and orange juice into ice-filled glass. Float Galliano on top.
Highball Glass, Orange Slice
|Kamikaze|| 1 oz. Vodka|
1 oz. Triple Sec
1 oz. Lime Juice
Shake all ingredients with ice and strain.
Cocktail Glass, Lime Slice
|Green Flash Brewing Co||Mike and Lisa Hinkley took their interest in the craft beer industry to a new level in 2002 when they founded Green Flash Brewing Company. Former pub owners, Mike and Lisa jumped into brewing, and in 2003 renowned brewmaster Chuck Silva joined the team.|
With Chuck on board we began brewing premium style beers, modern twists on traditional styles, and our beers began to develop a following. Cutting edge brews, Green Flash Brewing Company's beers don't fit traditional guidelines, instead we let our hybrid, benchmark beers blaze their own trail.
Located in Vista, CA, we specialize in brewing assertive and distinctive beers, such as our West Coast I.P.A.: an award-winning beer whose wide acceptance has helped define a category. We also brew seasonal, collaborative and barrel-aged beers.
Our award-winning beers are on draft and bottled and are available throughout the United States in bars, restaurants and retail outlets
Resinous hop character and bitterness balance the rich carmel malt base. We took it a step further and Amarillo dry-hopped the brew to 45 ibu's, creating refreshing and savory hop flavors and aromas. Is it red IPA? That's your call.
ABV: 6% | IBU's: 45
|Coca-Cola||Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in the stores, restaurants, and vending machines of more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke (a registered trademark of The Coca-Cola Company in the United States since March 27, 1944). Originally intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton, Coca-Cola was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coke to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century.|
The company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold territorially exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. Such bottlers include Coca-Cola Enterprises, which is the largest single Coca-Cola bottler in North America and western Europe. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains to major restaurants and food service distributors.
The Coca-Cola Company has, on occasion, introduced other cola drinks under the Coke brand name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Zero, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special editions with lemon, lime or coffee.
In response to consumer insistence on a more natural product, the company is in the process of phasing out E211, or sodium benzoate, the controversial additive used in Diet Coke and linked to DNA damage in yeast cells and hyperactivity in children. The company has stated that it plans to remove E211 from its other products, including Sprite and Oasis, as soon as a satisfactory alternative is found.
The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca. He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine.
In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a non-alcoholic version of French Wine Coca. The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.
By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola — sold by three separate businesses — were on the market. Asa Griggs Candler acquired a stake in Pemberton's company in 1887 and incorporated it as the Coca Cola Company in 1888. The same year, while suffering from an ongoing addiction to morphine, Pemberton sold the rights a second time to four more businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey, C.O. Mullahy and E.H. Bloodworth. Meanwhile, Pemberton's alcoholic son Charley Pemberton began selling his own version of the product.
John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. So, in the summer of 1888, Candler sold his beverage under the names Yum Yum and Koke. After both failed to catch on, Candler set out to establish a legal claim to Coca-Cola in late 1888, in order to force his two competitors out of the business. Candler purchased exclusive rights to the formula from John Pemberton, Margaret Dozier and Woolfolk Walker. However, in 1914, Dozier came forward to claim her signature on the bill of sale had been forged, and subsequent analysis has indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery as well.
Old German Coca-Cola bottle openerIn 1892 Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the current corporation), and in 1910 Candler had the earliest records of the company burned, further obscuring its legal origins. By the time of its 50th anniversary, the drink had reached the status of a national icon in the USA. In 1935, it was certified kosher by Rabbi Tobias Geffen, after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.
Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The first outdoor wall advertisement was painted in the same year as well in Cartersville, Georgia. Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955. The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. Its proprietor was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design that is now so familiar. Asa Candler was tentative about bottling the drink, but two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899 Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for the company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.
Coke concentrate, or Coke syrup, was and is sold separately at pharmacies in small quantities, as an over-the-counter remedy for nausea or mildly upset stomach.
New CokeMain article: New Coke
One of Coke's ads to promote the flavor change.On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke". Follow-up taste tests revealed that most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi, but Coca-Cola management was unprepared for the public's nostalgia for the old drink, leading to a backlash. The company gave in to protests and returned to a variation of the old formula, under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985.
21st centuryOn February 7, 2005, the Coca-Cola Company announced that in the second quarter of 2005 they planned to launch a Diet Coke product sweetened with the artificial sweetener sucralose, the same sweetener currently used in Pepsi One. On March 21, 2005, it announced another diet product, Coca-Cola Zero, sweetened partly with a blend of aspartame and acesulfame potassium. In 2007, Coca-Cola began to sell a new "healthy soda": Diet Coke with vitamins B6, B12, magnesium, niacin, and zinc, marketed as "Diet Coke Plus."
On July 5, 2005, it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in 1968.
In April 2007, in Canada, the name "Coca-Cola Classic" was changed back to "Coca-Cola." The word "Classic" was truncated because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two. The formula remained unchanged.
In January 2009, Coca-Cola stopped printing the word "Classic" on the labels of 16-ounce bottles sold in parts of the southeastern United States. The change is part of a larger strategy to rejuvenate the product's image.
In November 2009, due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke.
Use of stimulants in formulaWhen launched Coca-Cola's two key ingredients were cocaine (benzoylmethyl ecgonine) and caffeine. The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut, leading to the name Coca-Cola (the "K" in Kola was replaced with a "C" for marketing purposes).
Coca — cocainePemberton called for five ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup, a significant dose; in 1891, Candler claimed his formula (altered extensively from Pemberton's original) contained only a tenth of this amount. Coca-Cola did once contain an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass, but in 1903 it was removed. Coca-Cola still contains coca flavoring.
After 1904, instead of using fresh leaves, Coca-Cola started using "spent" leaves — the leftovers of the cocaine-extraction process with cocaine trace levels left over at a molecular level. To this day, Coca-Cola uses as an ingredient a cocaine-free coca leaf extract prepared at a Stepan Company plant in Maywood, New Jersey.
In the United States, Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant, which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia. Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt, a St. Louis, Missouri pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.
Kola nuts — caffeineKola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings (Including Caffeine)." Kola nuts contain about 2 percent to 3.5 percent caffeine, are of bitter flavor and are commonly used in cola soft drinks. In 1911, the U.S. government initiated United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola, hoping to force Coca-Cola to remove caffeine from its formula. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in 1912 the U.S. Pure Food and Drug Act was amended, adding caffeine to the list of "habit-forming" and "deleterious" substances which must be listed on a product's label.
Coca-Cola contains 46 mg of caffeine per 12 fluid ounces, while Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola and Diet Coke Caffeine-Free contain 0 mg.
Coca-Cola 375 mL 24 can pack (AU)IngredientsCarbonated water
Sugar (sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup depending on country of origin)
Phosphoric acid v. Caramel (E150d)
A can of Coke (12 fl ounces/355 ml) has 39 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugar, approximately 10 teaspoons), 50 mg of sodium, 0 grams fat, 0 grams potassium, and 140 calories.
Formula of natural flavoringsMain article: Coca-Cola formula
The exact formula of Coca-Cola's natural flavorings (but not its other ingredients which are listed on the side of the bottle or can) is a trade secret. The original copy of the formula is held in SunTrust Bank's main vault in Atlanta. Its predecessor, the Trust Company, was the underwriter for the Coca-Cola Company's initial public offering in 1919. A popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula. The truth is that while Coca-Cola does have a rule restricting access to only two executives, each knows the entire formula and others, in addition to the prescribed duo, have known the formulation process.
On February 11, 2011 Ira Glass revealed on his PRI radio show, This American Life, that the secret formula to Coca-Cola had been uncovered in a 1979 newspaper. The formula found basically matched the formula found in Pemberton's diary. 
Franchised production modelThe actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants and food service distributors.
The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchises, like Coca-Cola Enterprises, Coca-Cola Amatil, Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company (CCHBC) and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but fully independent bottlers produce almost half of the volume sold in the world. Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes.
The bottling plant in Skopje, Macedonia, received the 2009 award for "Best Bottling Company".
Detail on Elmira Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Elmira, NY.The famous Coca-Cola logo was created by John Pemberton's bookkeeper, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885. Robinson came up with the name and chose the logo's distinctive cursive script. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid 19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.
Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.
Contour bottle design
Earl R. Dean's original 1915 concept drawing of the contour Coca-Cola bottle.
The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.The equally famous Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, but known to some as the "hobble skirt" bottle, was created by bottle designer Earl R. Dean. In 1915, the Coca-Cola Company launched a competition among its bottle suppliers to create a new bottle for the beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was."
Chapman J. Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T. Clyde Edwards, plant superintendent Alexander Samuelsson, and Earl R. Dean, bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Root and his subordinates decided to base the bottle's design on one of the soda's two ingredients, the coca leaf or the kola nut, but were unaware of what either ingredient looked like. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola. Instead, Dean was inspired by a picture of the gourd-shaped cocoa pod in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned back to the plant to show Mr. Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle. Chapman Root gave Dean his approval.
Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning. Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.
Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November, 1915. The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts. Dean resolved this issue by decreasing the bottle's middle diameter. During the 1916 bottler's convention, Dean's contour bottle was chosen over other entries and was on the market the same year. By 1920, the contour bottle became the standard for the Coca-Cola Company. Today, the contour Coca-Cola bottle is one of the most recognized packages on the planet..."even in the dark!".
As a reward for his efforts, Dean was offered a choice between a $500 bonus or a lifetime job at the Root Glass Company. He chose the lifetime job and kept it until the Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought out the Root Glass Company in the mid-1930s. Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories.
Although endorsed by some[who?], this version of events is not considered authoritative by many[who?] who consider it implausible. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until 1919. Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.
In 1944, Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products. Traynor's concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. is widely recognized as a landmark case in U.S. law today.
In 1997, Coca-Cola also introduced a "contour can," similar in shape to its famous bottle, on a few test markets, including Terre Haute, Indiana. The new can has never been widely released.
A new slim and tall can began to appear in Australia as of December 20, 2006; it cost AU$1.95. The cans have a distinct resemblance to energy drink cans. The cans were commissioned by Domino's Pizza and are available exclusively at their restaurants.
In January 2007, Coca-Cola Canada changed "Coca-Cola Classic" labeling, removing the "Classic" designation, leaving only "Coca-Cola." Coca-Cola stated this is merely a name change and the product remains the same. The cans still bear the "Classic" logo in the United States.
In 2007, Coca-Cola introduced an aluminum can designed to look like the original glass Coca-Cola bottles.
In 2007, the company's logo on cans and bottles changed. The cans and bottles retained the red color and familiar typeface, but the design was simplified, leaving only the logo and a plain white swirl (the "dynamic ribbon").
In 2008, in some parts of the world, the plastic bottles for all Coke varieties (including the larger 1.5- and 2-liter bottles) was changed to include a new plastic screw cap and a slightly taller contoured bottle shape, designed to evoke the old glass bottles.
200 mL "stubby" bottle widely available throughout China. These are sold in small shops for 1 yuan, and must be consumed on site in order to return the bottle.Coke mini is a 7.5 ounce can packaging of Coca-Cola that debuted in December 2009. There are plans to also sell smaller cans of Sprite, Fanta Orange, Cherry Coca-Cola and Barq's Root Beer.
Local competitorsPepsi is usually second to Coke in sales, but outsells Coca-Cola in some markets. Around the world, some local brands compete with Coke. In South and Central America Kola Real, known as Big Cola in Mexico, is a fast-growing competitor to Coca-Cola. On the French island of Corsica, Corsica Cola, made by brewers of the local Pietra beer, is a growing competitor to Coca-Cola. In the French region of Brittany, Breizh Cola is available. In Peru, Inca Kola outsells Coca-Cola, which led The Coca-Cola Company to purchase the brand in 1999. In Sweden, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season. In Scotland, the locally produced Irn-Bru was more popular than Coca-Cola until 2005, when Coca-Cola and Diet Coke began to outpace its sales. In India, Coca-Cola ranked third behind the leader, Pepsi-Cola, and local drink Thums Up. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Thums Up in 1993. As of 2004, Coca-Cola held a 60.9% market-share in India. Tropicola, a domestic drink, is served in Cuba instead of Coca-Cola, due to a United States embargo. French brand Mecca Cola and British brand Qibla Cola, popular in the Middle East, are competitors to Coca-Cola. In Turkey, Cola Turka is a major competitor to Coca-Cola. In Iran and many countries of Middle East, Zam Zam Cola and Parsi Cola are major competitors to Coca-Cola. In some parts of China Future cola is a competitor. In Slovenia, the locally produced Cockta is a major competitor to Coca-Cola, as is the inexpensive Mercator Cola, which is sold only in the country's biggest supermarket chain, Mercator. In Israel, RC Cola is an inexpensive competitor. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a serious competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions. Laranjada is the top-selling soft drink on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Coca-Cola has stated that Pepsi was not its main rival in the UK, but rather Robinsons drinks.
An 1890s advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th century attire. The ad is titled Drink Coca-Cola 5¢. (US)
Coca-Cola ghost sign in Fort Dodge, Iowa. Note older Coca-Cola ghosts behind Borax an
|Cienega Valley AVA||Located in San Benito County|
The San Andreas fault line runs straight down the middle of Cienega Valley
soil on the east side of the fault line consists of granite and sandstone, while the western soil consists of granite and limestone.
DeRose Vineyards and Pietra Santa Winery are the only two wineries in Cienega Valley, which holds one sub-appellation, Limekiln Valley.
|Cucamonga Valley AVA||In Riverside and San Bernardino Counties|
|Diablo Grande AVA||In Stanislaus County |
Named after Mount Diablo, the highest peak in the Pacific Coast Range, Diable Grande is owned by the Diablo Grande resort community.
It is situated in the western foothills of Stanislaus County of California and receives more rainfall and lower temperature than surrounding areas.
|Leona Valley AVA||in Los Angeles County|
|Lime Kiln Valley AVA|| In San Benito County|
Home only to Enz Vineyards, Limekiln Valley rests inside the Cienega Valley AVA. Limekiln's soil is sandy, gravelly loam over dolomite and limestone. The summertime average high temperature is 90°F, with a diurnal variation of up to 50°F
|Madera AVA||in Madera and Fresno Counties|
Located in the epicenter of California state, Madera sprawls across the western portion of Madera county and seeps into Fresno County.
The landscape is flat, the sun is scorching hot and vines receive little reprieve from the extremely hot days. Grapes reach ultra-ripe levels, meaning most of the fruit from Madera's 38,000 acres of vines are destined for jug wines.
Some producers are beginning to make decent Port and dessert wines, so there's some hope for the region
|Malibu-Newton Canyon AVA||in Los Angeles County|
|Pacheco Pass AVA|| In San Benito County |
Pacheco Pass is a 15 mile corridor known more for its orchards than its vineyards
|Paicines AVA|| in San Benito County|
Paicines forms the southern portion of the San Benito AVA and is primarily a grape source for large California producers. Its climate is moderate, much warmer than the Cienega Valley, Limekiln Valley and Mount Harlan AVAs to the west
|Ramona Valley AVA||in San Diego County|
|River Junction AVA||in San Joaquin County|
|Saddle Rock- Malibu AVA||in Los Angeles County|
|Salado Creek AVA||in Stanislaus County|
|San Benito AVA||Over 3,000 acres of vines are planted in San Benito, which has seen a 2,000 acre vine increase since the mid-1990s. The climate is generally moderate, cooled by the ocean breezes that are able to squeeze through the Gabilan and Santa Lucia mountain ranges, and many microclimates and soil types can be found throughout the AVA. |
San Benito contains three sub-appellations:
|San Pasqual Valley AVA||in San Diego County|
|Seiad Valley AVA||in Siskiyou County|
|Sierra Pelona AVA||in Los Angeles County|
|Solano County Green Valley AVA||in Solano County|
|Suisun Valley AVA||in Solano County|
|Temecula Valley AVA||in Riverside County|
Temecula derives its name from the Luiseno Indian term "where the sun shines through the mist." True to its name, the region is known for the mist that lingers until mid-morning on its 1,400 foot plateau.
Temecula is a very warm region that receives little rainfall, which creates a short growing season that lasts from March to September. Fortunately, the vineyard altitudes and Pacific breezes moderate the temperatures, creating cool nights that prevent the grapes from baking in the summer heat and allow them to maintain some of their natural acidity.
The vines are planted in granite and sandy loam soil with good drainage, and the vineyards are irrigated from underground aquifers.
Wineries have grown grapes here since 1966, and today over 20 wineries are producing Chardonnay, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier, Syrah and Pinot Gris
|Tracy Hills AVA||in San Joaquin and Stanislaus Counties|
|Trinity Lakes AVA||in Trinity County|