large vessel that carries blood away from the heart
small vessel that carries blood away from the heart
large vessel that carries blood to the heart
small vessel that carries blood to the heart
what "insulates" the blood vessels?
smooth muscle and elastic tissue
what tissue covers the vessels?
what is on the inside of a blood vessel?
small vessels that connect venules and arterioles
part of the lymphatic system
what is the normal blood pressure in an artery?
180 mm Hg
at what rate does lymph enter the lymph capillaries?
what is the normal blood pressure in an arteriole?
30 mm Hg
at what rate does lymph leave the capillaries?
12 mm Hg
At what rate does lymph reenter the capillary bed?
8 mm Hg
what two forces are at work in the capillary bed?
1. osmotic pressure inside and outside the capillaries
2. hydrostatic pressure both inside and outside the capillary bed
what are the effects of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure in the arteriole side of the capillary bed?
the lymph leaves the capillary bed, and exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide, glucose, and wastes with body cells
what are the effects of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressure in the venule half of the capillary bed?
the lymph reenters the capillary bed at a net pressure of 8 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg are left
what is the main problem with the capillary bed?
there is more lymph going out than going back in
swelling as a result of the build of fluid in tissue
3 functions of the lymphatic system
1. absorb excess lymph and prevent edema
2. lacteals in intestinal villi absorb glycerol and fatty acid
3. lymph nodes produce lymphocytes to fight infections
solid portion of blood
liquid portion of blood
what is the function of the milking action of skeletal muscle?
to circulate blood when it enters veins at 0 mm Hg
how does the milking action of skeletal muscle work?
when a muscle contracts and shortens, the muscle causes the blood vessel's valves to close and forces blood up, and because the valves close, the blood cannot go back down (fights gravity)
where does the blood enter the heart from the upper body?
superior vena cava
where does the blood enter the heart from the lower body?
inferior vena cava
what cavity does the blood enter first after coming through the vena cava?
what valve does the blood go through when leaving the right atrium?
what cavity does the blood go into after flowing through the tricuspid valve?
what valve is blood pumped through when leaving the right ventricle?
pulmonary semi-lunar valve
where does blood travel after being pumped through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve?
through the pulmonary artery to the lungs
what happens to blood in the lungs?
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
where does blood enter the heart from the lungs?
what cavity does blood flow into through the pulmonary veins?
what valve does blood flow through when leaving the left atrium?
what cavity does blood enter after flowing through the biscuspid valve?
what valve is blood pumped through when leaving the left ventricle?
aortic semi-lunar valve
what major artery does the aortic semi-lunar valve lead into?
where is blood pumped to through the aorta?
what happens to the blood in the body?
CO2 and O2 are exchanged
name the 4 valves in the heart
tricuspid, bicuspid, pulmonary semilunar valve, aortic semilunar valve
which valve only has two flaps?
what are the normal "heart noises"?
what is the abnormal "heart noise"?
shh - heart murmur
what is the lup sound?
the tricuspid and bicuspid valves slamming shut
what is the dupp sound?
the pulmonary semilunar and aortic semilunar valves slamming shut
what is heart efficiency based on?
how strong the muscle is and how tight the valves are sealed
what are the 2 alternate names for the "heartstrings"?
papillary muscles and chordae tendinae
what are the functions of the heartstrings?
they hold the valve so they cannot swing both ways
what do you call a valve which swings slightly in the opposite directions?
how do all the valves in the circulatory open?
force of blood flow
what is the function of the sinoatrial node?
pacemaker - sends electrical impulses across the surface of the heart, causing the two atria to contract simultaneously
what is the function of the atrioventricular node?
receives electrical signal, regulates contractions of heart by delaying signal so the atria can contract before the ventricles
what are the coronary vessels?
supply heart with oxygen by blood flow
what is an electrocardiogram?
ECG, EKG electric reading of the heart activity
what are the waves associated with an ECG?
what is the P wave?
depolarization (contraction) of the 2 atria
what are the QRS waves?
the repolarization (relaxation) of the atria, and the ventricles depolarization
what is the T wave?
what is the liquid portion of blood?
what is the solid portion of blood?
why is blood considered a connective tissue?
it has living cells surrounded by a nonliving/noncellular matrix
what % of plasma is water?
what proteins are present in plasma?
fibrinogen, globulins, albumin
what is the function of fibrinogen?
clotting of blood
what are globulins?
antibodies that fight infections
what is the function of albumin?
responsible for osmoregulation of blood and cells
what dissolved gases are present in plasma?
CO2 and O2
what is plasma made of?
water, CO2, O2, proteins, glucose along with other nutrients, salts, wastes (urea), and hormones
if you take the 3 proteins out of plasma, what is left?
tissue fluid (lymph or glomular filtrate)
what is left if you take the fibrinogen out of plasma?
what are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
where are erythrocytes produced?
what is the function of erythrocytes?
transport O2 and CO2
what is the most numerous of the blood cells?
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
which blood cells contain hemoglobin
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
what are RBC's shaped like?
which of the blood cells have a nucleus?
what is life span of a RBC?
how many RBC's are in 1 cc of blood?
what is a thrombocyte?
what are the functions of thromobocytes?
where are thrombocytes produced?
what are the smallest blood cells?
what are leukocytes?
white blood cells
what are the function of leukocytes?
where are leukocytes produced?
bone marrow and lymph nodes
what is the largest blood cell?
what are the two types of leukocytes?
granular and agranular
what are the three granular leukocytes?
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
what are the characteristics of granular leukocytes?
lobed nucleus, granules in cytoplasm
what are the agranular leukocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
what is the main characteristic of agranular leukocytes?
no granules in cytoplasm
what are the two types of wounds?
intrinsic and extrinsic
what chemical MUST be present for blood clotting?
what does prothrombinase do?
causes a conversion from prothrombin to thrombin
what does the conversion from prothrombin to thrombin do?
causes a conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin which then clots blood
what is the body's "gauze pad"
what vitamin do you need to create prothrombin?
what are the 4 possible blood types?
A, B, AB, O
where are agglutinogens (antigens) found?
on the red blood cell membrane
where are agglutinines (antibodies) found?
what is an agglutinogen?
what is an agglutinine?
antigens of type A
antibodies of A
antigens of B
antibodies of B
antigens of AB
A and B
antibodies of AB
antigens of O
antibodies of O
A and B
which blood type is a universal recipient?
which blood type is a universal donor?
what does it mean to be Rh positive?
the Rh factor is present on the RBC membrane
what does it mean to be Rh negative?
the Rh factor is NOT present on the RBC membrane
what happens if an Rh(-) person gets an Rh(+) person's blood?
their immune system attacks it
what is erythroblasotsis fetalis?
a mother is carrying a baby with a different blood Rh type (Rh- mother with and Rh+ baby)
which pregnancy does EF affect?
every pregnancy after the first
what happens to the younger children?
the mother's body has began to produce Rh antibodies because of the contact with first babies blood and so the mothers blood attacks the other children's Rh+ blood and children can be born anemic or dead
alleles present in type A blood
Ia and i
possible genotypes for type A blood
Ia Ia and Ia i
alleles present in type B blood
Ib and i
possible genotypes for type B blood
Ib Ib and Ib i
alleles present in AB blood
Ia and Ib
possible genotypes for AB blood
alleles present in O blood
possible genotypes for type O blood
alleles in Rh+ blood
D or d
genotypes of Rh+ blood
DD or Dd
alleles in Rh- blood
genotypes of Rh- blood
what is a heart attack?
a blocked coronary vessel