Genetics and Heredity

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genetics

study of heredity

Gregor Mendel

a monk who bred pea plant to study inheritance, he discovered the basic principals of heredity; Father of Genetics

gene

location of a specific trait on a chromosome

allele

alternate forms of gene with a slight difference in base sequence

dominant

masks, one allele is stronger than the other

recessive

gets masked, weaker allele

genotype

genetic makeup of an individual (think gene)

phenotype

the expression of the genotype or the physical characteristics that you can see (think physical)

homozygous

when both alleles in a pair are the same (homo=same)

heterozygous

when the alleles in a pair are different from each other (hetero=different)

monohybrid cross

cross between two individuals that differ by one trait

law of segregation

two alleles for each trait separate when gametes form

law of dominance

in pair of alleles where one is expressed and one is not expressed, the expressed allele is dominant and unepressed is not dominant

P1

parental generation or the original generation that you observe

F1

the offspring of the P generation

F2

the offspring of the F1 generation

single allele traits

traits that are controlled by a single dominant allele or homozygous recessive alleles

multiple alleles

traits controlled by more than two alleles for the same gene

incomplete dominance

traits which have a heterozygous genotype that is intermediate between the dominant and recessive allele

codominant trait

traits which have a heterozygous genotype where both alleles have equal expression

sex-linked traits

traits that appear in the 23rd pair of chromosomes (the chromosomes that determine gender) and are normally found on the x chromosome

polygenic traits

traits controlled by two or more genes

single allele traits

example: height in pea plants is controlled by a dominant tall allele or two recessive short alleles

multiple alleles

example: there are three alleles for blood type ( A, B, O) which results in four blood types

incomplete dominance

example: some varieties of flowering plants will produce a pink flowering version when a homozygous red and homozygous white are crossed

sex-linked traits

examples: colorblindness and hemophilia

polygenic traits

example: skin color is controlled by 4-7 genes

traits

passed from parents to offspring

dominant, recessive

example: allele for tall pea plant is (T) ______ over short pea plant (t) _______

genotype

example: the ______for a pure tall pea plant would be TT

phenotype

example: if the genotype for height in the pea plant is tt, then you will see a short pea plant

homozygous

example: a pure tall pea plant is _____ dominant, genotype=TT

heterozygous

example: a tall pea plant with genotype Tt is ______

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