-Russia against Ottoman Empire. Britain, France, Austria, and Piedmont Sardinia allied with the turks.
- considered one of the most "modern wars"
-result: Russia was forced to relinquish its claims to certain Balkan lands and accept that Russian warships could not enter the Black Sea.
- Romania and Serbia emerged as self-governing countries.
a united Italy; resurgence, embodied in a liberal national state.
- Count Cavour was to play a crucial rule in this.
-Count Cavour was prime minister. his principals were liberalism and constitutional monarchism. His economic polices promoted the modernization of industry and Agriculture.
1856 the new Russian Czar who made peace with the Ottoman Empire at the Congress of Paris; introduced liberal reforms, proclaimed an edict abolishing serfdom and freeing the peasants benefiting landowners rather than the peasants; westernized the legal system was unsuccessful and ultimately assassinated in 1881 by a group of Bakunin.( introduced legal and administrative reforms - Zemtvos - noble gov. )
Napoleon III -
Supported Italy in the war against Austria.
Red Shirts -
- soldiers under Giuseppi Garibaldi in southern Italy.
- helped to topple the government of the two Sicilies.
( landed in Sicily and than proceeded to tripple the Bourbon princes.
Victor of Emmanuel -
the Kingdom of Italy proclaimed him as king.
Seven Weeks War -
- Prussia in War with Austria.
- prussian armies superior training, weapons and leadership- Von Moltke - and his strategic use of railroads - contributed to their victory over the Austrians at the battle of Sadow which ended the war.
( In this War Bismarck objective to remove Austria from playing a decisive role in the affairs of the German states was achieved.)
Schleswig - Holestein -
- Hanover the free city of Frankfurt
- the city that Prussia annexed after victory against the Austrians in the Seven Weeks War.
Ferdinand Lassalle -
- Reichstag socialist; with the promise of universal male suffrage were willing to work with Bismarck and support the "North German Confederation" .
Ems Dispatch -
telegram edited by Bismarck, that led Napolean III to declare war on Prussia.
- the place where Prussian victory; without support from other European countries France was forced to abdicate and become replaced by a Third French Republic .
Bismarck belonged to this ; landholding class in Prussia.
a compromise in 1861 between Austria- Bohemia and Magyars of Hungary; Austria and Bohemia would both have their own parliaments; the house of Habsburg was reconized as the Emperor of Austria and the King of Hungary.
-it however did not allow the slavs pop. in the political process.
Dual Monarchy -
was created by the compromise of 1861; between Austria- Bohemia and Magyars of Hungary; Austria and Bohemia would both have their own parliaments; the house of Habsburg was reconized as the Emperor of Austria and the King of Hungary.
were divided as to how best to address the problems of Russia; ( looked to Russian traditional values and were often suspicous of the west; the middle class identified with western liberal values)
gave inspiration from the teaching anarchist to the group called "ninhilsts" who assassinated Alexander II.; Karl Marx campaigned against the German Lassaleans and used the First International. "scientific" socialism to drive drive the Bakunin out.; their anarchist theory had called for destruction of the state.
who assassinated Alexander II. and got inspiration from the teaching anarchist. ; saw little possibility for real progress in the piecemeal reforms offered by Alexander.
Alexander Herzen -
writer that believed that revolution could be successful in Russia, given limited development of capitalism and the communal traditions of the Russian masses.
Dreyfus Affair -
revealed just how anti- semitic and polarized French society was during this time. ( divisions between right and left in French society during Republic revealed in this; Dreyfus was convicted of spying for Germany; anti semitic strong against conservative groups; convicted and sent to devils island; following Emile Zola campaign he was finally exponerated.
Irish Home Rule -
Gladstone efforts for home rule ended in failure; on the eve of World War I home rule was passed for British parliament but suspended for the duration of the war.
launched due to threat independent- minded Catholic church and its newly formed center party; Catholic institutions and leaders came under attack, the Jesuits were expelled from Germany; with help of the center party and Conservative he adopted protectionist trade tariffs. ( to reduce the power and influence of the church; laws were passed which confiscated church properties, mandated cival rights and banned religious order.
"invisible" exports -
financial services, many centered in London; helped maintain "Balance of Payments"- high point of unregulated capitalism.
" Balance of Payments" -
high point of "unregulated" capitalism. was maintained by the " invisible exports - financial services, many centered in London.
British Labor Party -
the trade union movement helped establish this at the turn of the century and provided it with necessary leadership. ( represented less revolutionary in European Society)
German Social Democratic party -
was founded in 1875; a unified French Socialist party in 1883.
was one of the parts that the Russian Social Democratic Party (SPD) was split into by Plekhanov and Axelrod ; the other part was Mensheviks.
Fabian Society -
promoted cooperation with the trade unions and labor representatives in parliament in order to bring about legislative change, especially at the municipal level. promoted this sense of "water work socialism".
Eduard Bernstein -
author of Evolutionary Socialism; in Germany argued for the gradual transformation of capitalism with Juares . No violent revolution. ( this represented a strong "revisionist" socialism)
Jean Juares -
in France argued for the gradual transformation of capitalism with Bernstein. No violent revolution.
Karl Kautsky -
Orthodox Marxist line was maintained by him ; agreed with the idea that direct action be taken by trade unions to break the power of the capitalist - Sorel. pop. France, Italy, and Spain.
Origin of A Species-
publication by Charles Darwin; in 1859; has a scientific basis; argued that species change over time by a kind chance. a natural mechanism rather than a divine design was at work.
T.H. Huxley -
debated over the controversy of Drawins Origin of Species and rejecting the conventional ideas.
Gregor Mendal -
through research carried out in his monastic garden provided scientific explanation for the laws governing heredity; his work become the basis for the study of genetics.
Ivan Palvlov -
carried out pioneering work in the field of psychology along with Wundt. became famous for his studies o conditioning in animals.
Sigmund Freud -
In Vienna; the founder of psychoanalysis, developed his concept concerning the make-up of the human psyche; human behavior product of the ID, Ego and Superego. The ID was the unconcisocousness was the source of all instinctive energies that powered the personality. ; His Interpertation of Dreams" - analyized the signifigance of many mechanism that employ it everyday.
Pierre and Marie Curie -
discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles.
Herbert Spencer -
philosophy; a key figure in British thought in the 19th century, held that evolutionary theory could be used not only to understand nature but also to discover the laws influencing the development of human society .
Freidrich Nietzsche -
philosophy; prophet of the "God of Dead" school of philosophy, ruthlessly challenged conventional beliefs and practices.
in his " life of Jesus" questioned the supernatural claims and literal truth of scripture.
The First Vatican Council of 1870-
1870 - proclaimed the "Dogma of the Papal Infallibility"; with the loss of its temporal powers the papacy was now more focused on its spirtual mission.
Pope Leo XIII -
made an important contribution to the social teachings of the Catholic church with his encyclical, "Rerum Novarum"- criticized certain aspects of unregulated capitalism.
Pope Leo XIII - criticized certain aspects of unregulated capitalism.
Theodor Herzel -
founded modern Zionist movement with the goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine.