Matter, Minerals and Rocks Study Guide

56 terms by sierramist19028

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Atom

Smallest unit of all mater

Element

matter made from 1 type of atom

Proton

Positive, Found in Nucleus

Electron

Negative, Orbits Nucleus

Neutron

Neutral, Found in Nucleus

Located in atoms Nucleus

Proton and Electron

Isotope

an element with different # of neutrons than protons

Compound

2 or more atoms bounded together

Force that holds 2 atoms together

Chemical Bond

3 types of Chemical Bonds

Ionic, Covalent, and Metalic

Ionic Bond

forms when an atom gains or loses electrons

Covalent Bond

forms when atoms share electrons

Metallic Bond

forms when electrons are shared by metal ions

Particle that is involved with bonding

Electrons

Mineral

A solid substance with a crystal structure

Silicates

(silicates and Oxygen)

Carbonates

(Carbon, Oxygen, Metal)

Oxides

(Oxygen and Metal)

Sulfates and Sulfides

(Sulfur)

Halides

(Halogen and all elements in group 17)

Native

(Single Element)

Most abundant mineral group

Silicates

Minerals Classified?

Elements they contain

How do we identify minerals?

Physical Properties

Luster

reflection

Streak

Color of Powdered form

Hardness

how easy the rock scratches materials

Color

Color (can be misleading)

Cleavage

Smooth (breaks)

Fracture

Random pieces (breaks)

Other Properties used for describing physical properties of minerals

Density, Smell, ETC.

Mohs Hardness Scale?

1-10 scale of hardness

Hardest Substance (rock)

Diamond

What determines minerals properties?

Talk

Rocks and Minerals related?

Rocks are composed of minerals

3 types of rocks

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic

Igneous rocks form?

Cooling magma

Intrusive Igneous Rock?

comes from under the earth

Extrusive Igneous Rock?

comes from above the earths surface

Igneous Rock with glassy appearance?

Extrusive

Igneous rock that has larger crystal grains?

Intrusive

This process affects the rate of crystal growth within a rock...

rate of cooling

How Metamorphic rock is formed?

Heat and Pressure

How metamorphic rocks are classified with layers

Foliate

How metamorphic rocks are classified without layers

Non-Foliate

How sedimentary rocks are formed?

weathering and erosion

Sediment?

small pieces of broken down rock

Compaction?

Pressure (pushing together)

Cementation

Sediment Hardens

Clastic

type of sedimentary rock, made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz

Chemical Sedimentary

minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock

Organic Sedimentary

Remains of plants and animals

The type of rocks that can form sedimentary

Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary (All Rocks)

The Rock Cycle?

how rocks form

Rock that fossils would be in

Sedimentary

Most abundant type of rock on the surface of the earth

Sedimentary

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