Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
- a virus that causes progressive destruction of the humanimmune system
- fever, sore throat, skin rash(Kaposi's sarcoma), diarrhea, vomiting, pancytopenia, lymphadenopathy
HIV and HTLV transmission
- sexual contact, contaminated blood/ blood products, IV drug abuse, mother to child(in utero), and needle sticks(healthcare workers)
HIV high-risk groups
- homosexual males, bisexual males, IV drug users, transfusion recdipients
3 HIV classifications
- Asymptomatic, Symptomatic, and AIDS- indicator conditions
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
- is a disease caused by HIV, characterized by an opportunistic secondary infection(s). Patient is immunocompromised and secondary infections cause death.
- common viral pathogen, 50% of adults have contracted it; usually asymptomatic or subclinical. Common cause of congenital defects in infants, pathogenic to immunocompromised patients. affects the lymphocytes and the bone marrow.
CMV symptoms (infants and immunocompromised)
- rash, enlarged liver and spleen. hearing loss and mental retardation in infants.
- culture, serology (look for antibody in serum), DNA probes, Histology
Respriatory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
- common viral pathogen, affects almost 100% of population by age four, very contagious; causes localized infection of respiratory tract. frequent cause of fatal acute respiratory infections in infants and elderly. Occurs in winter months.
- directly attacks bronchi of lungs and causes necrosis (tissue death; plugs of mucus and dead tissue block airways.
RSV and VZV transmission
- inhalation (respiratory), contaminated formites (inanimate objects), improper handwashing.
- Serology (direct antigen testing) and culture
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
- causative agent of chickenpox, recurrent cases are called herpes zoster or shingles and usually occur in adults, very contagious.
- fever, rash with pustules, malaise, localized pain at pustule sites
- serology (direct antibody testing) and culture
Human T-cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV)
- causes cancer after a latent period of up to 30 years causing uncontrolled cell growth and/or mutation, causative agent of adult acute T-cell lymphocytic leukemia
- usually asymptomatic, elevated white blood cell count and skin lesions
- Serology (serum antigen testing) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)