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Thymus

A gland found just below the neck of children; helps immature immune system make white blood cells; disappears by teen years

Thyroid

Found in the neck; makes hormone thyroxine which controls the rate of metabolism (how rapidly food is burned)

Parathyroid

Small dots of tissue inside thyroid; controls amount of calcium and bone thickness

Adrenals

Small pyramids on top of kidneys; hormones aid "fight or flight" reactions for emergencies

Pituitary

A pea-sized gland at the base of the brain; makes growth hormone and many other hormones which control other glands; also known as "master gland"

Ligament

Tough bands that connect bones to each other

Tendon

Bands that attach muscles to bones or other muscles

Bursa Sacs

Clusters of sacs that make "oil" to lubricate/smooth movement in joints

Bone Marrow

In center of long bones; makes most red blood cells and some white

Plasma

Yellow-ish fluid that carries and nourishes blood cells

Lymph

Clear fluid in the plasma; passes through blood vessels to wash body cells; collects germs for later destruction

Lymph Nodes

Found mostly near joints; white blood cells destroy germs collected by lymph; when ill becomes swollen with germs

White Blood Cells

Attack and swallow germs

Antibody

Chemical defenders of the body

Epidermis

Outer skin layer

Keratin

Dead layer at the surface of the epidermis; forms hair and nails

Dermis

Inner skin layer; contains hair roots and sweat glands

Esophagus

Tube that carries food from mouth to stomach

Stomach

Grinds and adds water to food

Small Intestine

Most digestion and absorption of food happens in this 20 foot tube

Large Intestine

Water needed during digestion is reabsorbed into body

Appendix

Found where small and large intestines join; has no known job to humans

Peristalsis

Rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the intestines

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