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Test Bank Questions on Final

The Human Genome accomplishes all of the following except:

a.) Sequencing the entire human genome.
b.) Identifying all of the genes in the human genome.
c.) The foundation for studying gene function in humans.
d.) Basis for studying variations in gene sequences related to illness.
e.) Imprinting a gene with the phenotype of the parent

e.) imprinting a gene with the phenotype of the parent

The human genome contains about ______ genes.

a.) 25,000
b.) 45,000
c.) 60,000
d.) 80,000
e.) 120,000

a.) 25,000

Why is it unlikely that genetically engineered strains of bacteria would pose a threat to the environment?

Genetically engineered strains of bacteria...
a.) cannot survive exposure to UV radiation.
b.) are strictly regulated, making accidental release unlikely.
c.) cannot survive exposure to oxygen
d.) are poor competitors of wild strains
e.) require supplemental nutrients to survive

b.) Genetically engineered strains of bacteria are strictly regulated, making accidental release unlikely

In the process by which cDNA is formed, reverse transcriptase is used to perform ___ from ___.

a.) double-stranded cDNA; single-stranded mRNA
b.) double-stranded mRNA; single-stranded cDNA
c.) single-stranded mRNA; single-stranded cDNA
e.) double-stranded cDNA; double-stranded mRNA

a.) Double-Stranded cDNA; Single-Stranded mRNA

Comparing the human and mouse genomes has revealed that...

a.) the mouse and human share few genes
b.) the mouse and human genomes are identical
c.) the mouse and human genomes have no genes in common
d.) the mouse and human share most genes.
e.) the mouse and human genomes have identical noncoding DNA

d.) The mouse and human genomes share most genes

What is the fraction of the eukaryotic genome that actually codes for protein?

a.) Less than 2%
b.) 15 %
c.) 45%
d.) 80%
e.) 99%

a.) Less than 2%

Which of the following is NOT a feature of eukaryotic genes?

a.) There is a lot of repetive DNA
b.) The presence of introns
c.) The mRNA is polycistronic
d.) DNA is organized into chromosomes
e.) Genes are scattered and not close together in the genome.

c.) The mRNA is polycistronic.

What is the major disadvantage of hierarchical sequencing as compared to shotgun sequencing?

a.) Hierarchial sequencing requires more sophisticated computer algorithms.
b.) Hierarchial sequencing requires special restriction enzymes

c.) Hierarchical sequencing requires more steps than shotgun sequencing, and hence is slower.

Organisms that have a lot of non-coding (junk) DNA are known as

a.) Prokaryotes
b.) Viruses
c.) Bacteria
d.) Eukaryotes
e.) Aliens

d.) Eukaryotes

What statement is TRUE concerning prokaryotic gene arrangements?

a.) Their genes are scattered throughout the genome and are controlled by a single promoter for the whole organism.
b.) Sets of genes are grouped into operons and are controlled by a single promoter per set
c.) There are many introns or junk DNA between genes
d.) Their DNA includes many simple repeats at centromeres and telomeres
e.) None of the above

b.) Sets of genes are grouped into operons and are controlled by a single promoter per set

Which of the following statements about pseudogenes is true?

a.) There often is little selective pressure to get rid of pseudogenes.
b.) The sequences of a pseudogene and its functional counterpart must be very different.
c.) In some gene families, pseudogenes outnumber functional genes.
d.) Both a and b
e.) Both a and c

e.) Both a and c

Which of the following is required for the formation of gene families?

a.) Repetitive DNA
b.) Pseudogenes
c.) Transposable elements
d.) Regulatory sequences
e.) Gene duplication

e.) Gene Duplication

What is the difference between a linkage map and a physical map?

a.) For a linkage map, markers are spaced by recombination frequency, whereas for a physical map they are spaced by numbers of base pairs.
b.) For a physical map, the ATCG order and sequence must be achieved, but not for the linkage ap.
c.) For a linkage map, it is shown how each gene is linked to every other gene.
d.) For a physical map, the distances must be calculable in units such as nanometers.
e.) There is no difference between the two except in the type of pictorial representation.

e.) There is no difference between the two except in the type of pictorial representation.

How is the physical map of the genome of an organism achieved?

a.) using recombination frequency
b.) using very high-powered microscopy
c.) using restriction enzyme cutting sites
d.) using sequencing of nucleotides
e.) using DNA fingerprinting via electrophoresis

c.) using restriction enzyme cutting sites

The biggest problem with the shotgun technique is its tendency to underestimate teh size of the genome. Which of the following might best account for this?

a.) skipping some of the clones to be sequenced
b.) missing some of the overlapping regions of th clones
c.) counting some of the overlapping regions of the clones twice
d.) having some of the clones die during the experiment and therefore not be represented
e.) missing some duplicated sequences

e.) Missing some duplicated sequences

What is bioinformatics?

a.) a technique using 3D images of genes in order to predict how and when they will be expressed.
b.) a method that uses very large national and international databases to access and work with a sequence information
c.) a software program available from NIH to design genes
d.) a series of search programs that allow a student to identify who in the world is trying to sequence a give species
e.) a procedure that uses software to order DNA sequences in a variety of comparable ways

b.) A method that uses a very large national and international databases to access and work with sequence information

What is proteomics?

a.) the linkage of each ene to a particular protein
b.) the study of the full protein set encoded by a genome
c.) the totality of the functional possibilites of a single protein
d.) the study of how amino acids are ordered in a protein
e.) the study of how a single gene activates many proteins

b.) the study of the full protein set encoded by a genome

Bioinformatics can be used to scan sequences for probable genes looking for start and stop sites for transcription and for translation, for probable splice sites, and for sequences known to be found in other known genes. Such sequences containing these elements are called.

a.) expressed sequence tags.
b.) cDNA
c.) multigene families
d.) proteomes
e.) short tandem repeats

a.) expressed sequence tags

Why is it preferable to use large computers and databases in searching for individual genes, rather than testing each sequence for possible function?

a.) Testing for function would require too many cells.
b.) Testing for function would require knowing the species, its life stage, and its phylogeny
c.) Testing for function would require knowing where a particular gene starts and ends and how it is regulated.
d.) Use of computer databases is intellectually less rigorous.
e.) The computer data can be sent to more labs.

d.) Use of computer databases is intellectually less rigorous

Which of the following is a representation of gene density?

a.) Humans have 2,900 Mb per genome
b.) C. elegans have ~20,000 genes
c.) Humans have ~25,000 genes in 2,900 Mb
d.) Humans have 27,000 bp in introns
e.) Fritillaria has a genome 40 times the size of a human

C.) Humans have ~25,000 genes in 2,900 Mb

A microarray known as a GeneChip, with most now known human protein coding sequences, has recently been developed aid in the study of human cancer by first comparing two_three subsets of cancer subtypes. What kind of information might be gleaned from this GeneChip to aid in canceer prevention?

a.) information about whether or not a patient has this type of cancer prior to treatment
b.) evidence that might suggest how best to treat a person's cancer with chemotherapy
c.) datat taht could alert patients to what kind of cancer they were likely to acquire
d.) information about which parent might have provided a patient with cancer-causing genes.
e.) information on cancer epidemiology in the U.S or elsewhere

c.) data that could alert patients to what kind of cancer, there were likely to acquire

Why is it unwise to try to relate an organism's complexity with its size or number of cells?

a.) A very large organism may be composed of very few cells or very few cell types.
b.) A single-celled organism, such as a bacterium or a protist, still has to conduct all the complex life functions of a large multicellular organism
c.) A single-celled organism that is also eukaryotic, such as a yeast, still reproduces mitotically.
d.) A simple organism can have a much larger genome.
e.) A complez organism can have a very small and simple genome.

a.) A very large organism may be composed of very few cells or very few cell types

Fragments of DNA have been extracted from the remnants of extinct wooly mammoths, amplified, and sequenced. These can now be used to

a.) introduce into relatives, such as elephants, certain mammoth traits.
b.) clone live wooly mammoths
c.) study the relationships among wooly mammoths and other wool-producers
d.) understand the evolutionary relationships among members of related taxa.
e.) appreciate the reasons why mammoths went extinct

a.) Introduce into relatives, such as elephants, certain mammoth traits

Which of the following seems to be the known upper and lower size limits of genomes?

a.) 1-2,900 Mb per genome
b.) 1,500-40,000 Mb
c.) 1-580,000 Mb
d.) 100-120,000 Mb
e.) 100-200,000 Mb

c.) 1-580,000 Mb

Why might the cricket genome have 11 times as many base pairs than that of Drosophila melanogaster?

a.) The two insect species evolved at very different geologic areas.
b.) Crickets have higher gene density
c.) Drosophila are more complex organiss
d.) Crickets must have more non-coding DNA
e.) Crickets must make many more proteins

d.) Crickets must have mroe non-coding DNA

Which of the following is a major distinction between a transposon and a retrotransposon?

a.) A transposon always leaves a copy of itself at its orignial position and a retrotransposon does not.
b.) A retrotransposon always uses the copy-paste mechanism, while a transposon uses cut and paste mechanism
c.) A transposon is related to a virus and a retrotransposon is not.
d.) The positioning of a transposon copy is transient while that of a retrotransposon is permanent.

d.) A transposon moves via a DNA intermediate and a retrotransposon via an RNA intermediate.

If humans have 2,900 Mb, a specific member of the lily family has 120,000 Mb, and a yeast has ~13 Mb, why can't this data allow us to order their evolutionary significance?

a.) Size matters less than gene density
b.) Size does not compare to gene density
c.) Size does not vary with gene complexity
d.) Size is mostly due to "junk" DNA
e.) Size is comparable only within phyla

c.) Size does not vary with gene complexity

What is the most probable explanation for the continued presence of pseudogenes in a genome such as our own?

a.) They are genes that had a function at one time, but that have lost their function because they have been translocated to a new location.
b.) They are genes that have accumulated mutations to such a degree that they would code for different functional products if activated.
c.) They are duplicates or near duplicates of functional genes but cannot function because they would provide inappropriate dosage of protein products
d.) They are genes with significant inverted sequences
e.) They are genes that are not expressed, even though they have nearly identical sequences to expressed genes.

a.) They are genes that had a function at one time, but that have lost their function because they have been translocated to a new location.

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