Focus

The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

Epicenter

The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquakes focus

Seismic Waves

A vibrationt that travels through earth carrying the energy released duringa n earthquake

P waves

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground

S waves

A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

Surface Waves

A type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach the Earth's surface

seismograph

a device that records ground movements caused by earthquakes as they move though earth

Magnitude

The measurement of an Earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults

Mercalli Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause

Richter Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes measured by a mechanical seismograph

Moment Magnitude Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

Liquefaction

The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud

Aftershock

An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area

Tsunamis

A giant wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor

Base- Isolated Building

A building mounted on bearings designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake

Earthquake

The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath the earth's surface

Stress

A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume

Shearing

Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions

Tension

Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

Compression

Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks

Deformation

A change in the volume or shape of the earth's crust

Fault

A break or crack in the earth's lithosphere along which rocks move

Strike- Slip Fault

A type of fault where rocks on either side move past eachother sideways with little up or down motion

Normal Fault

A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust

Hanging Wall

The block of rock that forms the upper half of the fault

Footwall

The block of rock that forms the lower half of the fault

Reverse Fault

A type of fault where the haning wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust

Fault- Block Mountain

A mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock

Folds

A bend in rock that forms where part of the earth's crust is comporessed

Anticline

An upward fold in rock formed by compression of earth's crust

Syncline

A downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust

Plateau

A landform that has a more or less level surface and is elevated high above sea level

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