Micro 7-8

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96 terms

Which is of the following is most likely the number of base pairs in a bacterial chromosome?

4,000,000

Which of the following is a true statement concerning prokaryotic chrmosomes?

They are located in the cytosol

A plasmid is

Extrachromosomal DNA.

Which of the following forms ionic bonds with eukaryotic DNA and stabilizes it?

Histone

Nucleotides used in the replication of DNA

All of the above

Which of the following molecules functions as a proofreader for a newly replicated strand of DNA?

DNA polymerase III

The addition of CH3 to a cytosine nucleotide after DNA replication is called

Methylation

In translation, the binding site through which tRNA molecules leave is called

E site

The Ames test

Uses autotrophs and liver extract to reveal potential mutagens.

Which of the following methods of DNA repair involves enzymes that recognize and correct nucleotide errors in unmethylated strands of DNA?

mismatch repair

Which of the following is not a mechanism of natural genetic transfer and recombination?

transcription

Cells that have the ability to take up DNA from their environment are said to be?

competent

Which of the following statements is true?

Conjugation requires a sex pilus extending from the surface of a cell.

Which of the following are called jumpin genes?

transposons

Although cells P and Q are totally unrelated, cell Q receives DNA from cell P and incorporates this new DNA into its chromosome. This process is

horizontal gene transfer

Which of the following is part of each molecule of mRNA?

codon

A nucleotide is composed of?

All of the above

In DNA, adenine forms_______ hydrogen bonds with________.

two/thymine

A sequence of nucleotides formed during replication of the lagging DNA strand is?

an Okazaki fragment

Which of the following is NOT part of an operon?

ORIGIN

Repressible operons are important in regulating prokaryotic

RNA transcription

Transcription produces

RNA molecules

Ligase plays a major role in

lagging strand replication

before mutations can affect a population permanently, they must be

all of the above

the trp operon is repressible. This means it usually ________ and is directly controlled by__________.

active/ a repressor

The three steps in RNA transcription are

initiation of transcription, elongation of the RNA transcript, termination of transcription

A triplet of mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid is called

codons

Three effects of point mutations are

silence, missense, nonsense

Insertions and deletions in the genetic code are also called_________ mutations

frameshift

an operon consists of _______,_________, and _________ and is associated with a regulatory gene.

promoter, operator, a series of genes

In general, _________ operons are inactive until the substrate of their genes polypeptides is present

incucible

A daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand because DNA replication is _________

semiconservative

A gene for antibiotic resistance can move horizontally among bacterial cells by ________, ____________, and ___________.

transformation, transduction, bacterial conjugation

_____________ are nucleotide sequences containing palindromes and genes for proteins that cut DNA strands.

Transposons

________ _________ is a recombination event that occurs during gamete formation in eukaryotes.

crossing over

____________ RNA carries amino acids

Transfer

___________ RNA and _______ RNA are antisense; that is they are complementary to another nucleic acid molecule

Short interference, Micro

Which of the following statements is true concerning recombinant DNA technology?

in involves modification of an organism's genome

A DNA gene synthesized from an RNA template is

complementary DNA

After scientists exposed cultures of penicillium to agents X,Y, and Z they examined the type and amount of penicillin produced by the altered fungi ti find the one that is most effective. Agents X,Y, and Z were probably

mutagens

Which of the following is FALSE concerning vectors in recombinant DNA technology?

Vectors must contain genes for self-replication.

which recombinant DNA technique is used to replicate copies of a DNA molecule?

PCR

which of the following would be most usefull in following a gene expression in a yeast cell?

DNA microarray

Which of the following techniques is used regularly in the study of genomics?

Fluorescent nucleotide bases are sequenced

Restriction enzyme HhaI

cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence.

Which application of recombinant DNA technology involves the production of a distinct pattern of DNA fragments on a gel?

genetic fingerprinting

A DNA microarray consists of

single stranded DNA localized on a substrate

T/F.........Restriction enzymes inhibit the movement of DNA

F. .... restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sites

T/F...... Restriction enzymes act at specific nucleotide sequences within a double stranded DNA molecule

T

a thermocyler seperates molecules based on their size, shape and electrical charge.

F....... Electrophoresis,

Protoplast fusion is often used in the genetic modification of plants

True

Gel electrophoresis is used in DNA microarrays

F.... Southern blotting

All of the following are associated with nucleic acid structure except

Ionic bonds

Which of the following is found at the 5 end of a DNA strand?

a phosphate group

The bacterial chromosome is

both circular and found in a nucleoid

Which of the following statements is true of bacterial plasmids

They are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate autonomously

Which of the following is involved in translation?

mRNA, rRNA and tRNA are all involved

the AUG codon functions in coding for the amino acid methionine and as a

start signal

Semiconservative DNA replication means that

each daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand

which of the following are considered to be frameshift mutations?

both deletions and insertions

if the codon AAA is changed to AAG, it still codes for the amino acid lysine; this is an example of a

silent mutation

the ames test proves that a chemical is

mutagenic in salmonella

the horizontal transfer process known as transduction

involves a virus

in conjugation, F+ cells

contain an F plasmid

Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but NOT eukaryotic genomes?

cirrcular chromosomes

Which of the following processes is involved in the "central dogma" of genetics?

transcription and translation

Which of the following causes mutations by creating thymine dimers?

Ultraviolet light

Which of the following is a DNA repair enzyme activated by visible light?

DNA photolyase

The horizontal transfer process known as transduction

involves a virus

Another term for the palindromic sequence found at the ends of transposons is a

inverted repeat

The energy required for DNA replication comes from

triphosphate deoxyribonucleotides

T/F Prokaryotic cells are diploid

F

T/F the structure of DNA explains both its ability to encode genetic information and the way in which it is copied during cell reproduction

T

T/F the phenotype of an organism reflects only part of its genotype

T

T/F in generalized transduction, viruses carry random DNA sequences from one cell to another

T

A________ is a specific sequence of nucleotides that codes for a protein or an RNA molecule

Gene

Transfer of DNA between cells by viruses is called

Transduction

A mutation that changes the reading frame of a gene is called a _________ mutation

Frameshift

The _________ of a transfer RNA molecule is complementary to a codon in a messenger RNA molecule.

Anticodon

The__________ is the set of genes in the genome of an organism

Genotype

Which of the following items is not a part of the name of a restriction enzyme?

the Gram reaction of the source bacterium

The natural role of restriction enzymes in bacteria is

to protect the cell from invading phages

Put the following steps in the correct order needed to produce a recombinant vector containing a human gene insert

1. Isolate
2. Ligate
3. Introduce
4. grow bacterial cells

If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result?

PCR would stop after one cycle

If you started with a single DNA molecule, how many would you have at the end of six PCR cycles?

64?

In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules move toward the ________ electrode because they have an overall ________ charge

positive, negative

Which of the following devices is used for PCR?

a thermocycler

A library of cloned sequences representing the expressed genes of an organism is known as a

cDNA library

Which of the following would be an appropriate temperature for the first step of PCR?

94C

Which of the following methods of inserting DNA into cells might be used on plant seeds?

Injection

The process of introducing animal organs into the human body is

Xenotransplantation

If all the following DNA fragments were analyzed on an electrophoresis gel, which one would migrate farthest from the negative electrode?

250 base pairs

T/F Gene therapy for human genetic diseases has not been successful yet.

F

T/F Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.

T

T/F the number of DNA molecules produced during PCR increases exponentially

T

T/F nucleic acid molecules used to deliver new genes to cells are called transporters

F

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