Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism. They often preceded traders, explorers, and conquerors in regions newly known to Europe.
land in Eastern Eurasia brought to attention by Russian rulers.
New state in territory surrounding Moscow, by 1500 it was the dominant political force in the lands that had been controlled by the Kievan state.
from "Cesar". Title taken by Ivan IV the Terrible.
Russian tsar (r. 1613-1645) A member of the Russian aristocracy, he became tsar after the old line of Muscovite rulers was deposed. (p. 551)
Peoples of the Russian Empire (Ukraina) who lived outside the farming villages, on the steepes, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Name comes from turkic word for warrior. Combination of Turkic and Russian skill and culture.
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government from 1689 to 1725. Wanted to secure black sea port, navy blockade on Ottoman ports.
a form of government in which a single person holds unlimited political power
the great mass of the Russian people- foced by law and custom to work on the land of their overlords
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He.
'universal teacher' of Tibetan Buddhism
an agriculturally based people who controlled the region north of Korea, contributed troops to an international force under ming leadership.
Ruled by a Manchu imperial family, and manchus were the leaders of the military forces
Intellectual prodigy who mastered chinese, manchu, and mongolian at an early age and memorized chinese classics. Succesful military commander who led troops in campaings that brought mongolia under Qing control.
blowing small pox powder in the nose to prevent severe outbreak and immunize against future outbreaks
The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. (p. 560)
was a semi-feudal government of Japan in which one of the shoguns unified the country under his family's rule. They moved the capital to Edo, which now is called Tokyo. This family ruled from Edo 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
warriors under Tokugawa Shogunate