Biology Chapter 32 & 33

Created by ynks0257 

Upgrade to
remove ads

full sections: 32.1 33.1 33.2

definition of animals

multicellular eukaryotes who are heterotrophic and develop tissues from embroyonic layers

# extant species

1.3 million

# phyla of invertebrates and % of all animals

35, making of 95 % of all animals

cephalization

development of distinct anterior end (head)

parthenogenesis

virgin birth, no mating. 2n mother gives 2n CLONE children

hermproditism

same individual has male and female parts, generally each part still gives sperm to another

choanocytes

flagelleted cells for help in feeding, the COLLAR CELLS of sponges; closely resemble chinoflaggates-type of protist animals are closely related to

body plan

a set of morphological and developmental traits, integrated into a functional whole-the animal.

cephalization

the concentration of sensory equipment at a body's anterior end, including the central nervous system/brain. Evolutionary trend typical of bilaterals

gastrulation

the formation of tissue layers in an embryo

ectoderm

the germ layer covering the surface of the embryo, giving rise to the covering of the animal

endoderm

innermost germ layer, lining digestive tube

mesoderm

a thrrd germ layer present in all bilaterals which lies between the ectoderm and the endoderm

body cavity/coelom

a fluid or air-filled space separating the digestive tract from the outer body wall

Protostomes

development begins with spiral, determinate cleavage; coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm; and the mouth froms from the blastopore

Deuterostomes

Development is radial, indeterminate cleavage; the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron; and the mouth forms from secondary openings

clades

derived from shared derived characteristics

4 Points of phylogeny agreement

(1) all animals share a common ancestor (2) sponges are basal animals (3) most animal phyla belong to the bilateral clade (4) chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia

Sponges (Calcaea and Silicea)

sessile animals lacking tissues, suspension feeders, hermaphrodites. marine and freshwater.

Cnidaria

corals, jellies, and hydras. radially symmetrical w/ grastrovascular cavity & ONE OPENING, either polyps or medusa. have cnidocytes w/nematocysts.

Platyhelminthes

Flatworms; bilateral symmetry, aceolomates, with a central nervous system. no circulation. ONE OPENING= thorax. have flame cells/protonephridia. HERMAPHRODITES or fission

Mollusca

have a soft body generally protected by a hard shell

Annelida

annelids/segmented worms. eat dirt for bacteria and fungi nutrition, then out the anus as castings. means "little rings"

Nematoda

roundworms; terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic and free living. have a touch CUTICLE coating body

Arthropoda

most species diversity, insects, crustaceans, and arachnids. segmented exoskeleton and jointed appendages

echinodermata

sand dollars, sea stars, and sea urchins, aquatic, bilateral as larva but not as adults. using internal canals to pump water throughout body

chordata

90% are vertebrates, also includes lancelets, tunicates and hagfish invertebrates

suspension feeders

capture food particles syspended in the water passing through their body

osculum

large opening which water and undigested food flows out of the sponge

spongocoel

central cavity of sponge which water and particles are drawn into

mesohyl

a gelatinous region of the sponge separating the 2 tissue layers, where fertilization occurs

nematocysts

organelles in cnidocytes which sting the cnidarian's prey

Hydrozoa

both ployp and medusa stages in cnidarians; polyp stage often colonial (only one to include some freshwaters, all else marine) EX OBELIA

scyphozoa

medusa only cnidarians

cubozoa

box shaped medusa

anthozoa

polyp only cnidarians. sea anemones and coral

planarian

typical flatworm, one opening is thorax, has light sensitive eyespots and lateral flaps which detect specific chemicals. NOT a parasite

radula

a straplike rasping organ used by molluscs to scrap up food

Chitons

class of molluscs w/ 8 dorsal plates

gastropods

class of molluscs including snails and slugs, have a spiraled shell into which the animal can retreat when threatened. marine, land and aquatic.

Bivalves

class of gastropods with a shell divided into two halves. no distinct head, no radula, trap food particles in mucus. can have many eyes. clams, musscles, and scallops

cephalopods

class of gastropods, active predators with tentacles, shell is reduced and internal. feet are at the head. only molluscs with a closed circulatory system and good sense organs, complex brain. have camera type eye.

olgichaetes

annelids including earthworms and aquatics, earthworms are hermaphrodites

leeches

vectors of many disease, used to drain blood. have bladelike jaws to slit the skin, use hirudin to stop blood coagulating near incision

Nematodes

roundworms which transport nutrients through fluid in the pseudocoelom and reproduce sexually

Arthropods

means "jointed feet", have segmented bodies, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. Evolved in the sea and later lived on land.

Arthropod circulatory & respiratory system

open, fluid called hemolymph is pumped by heart through short arteries and into sinuses. Specialized gas-exchange organs have evolved, most aquatics have gills and insects have tracheal systems

chelicerae

clawlike feeding appendages which serve as pincers or fangs of cheliceriforms

cheliceriforms

think fangs, they have a chelicerae, an anterior cephalothorax anda posterior abdomen, lack antenna. 8 legs

pedipalps

a pair of appendages functioning in sensing, feeding, or reproduction; and 4 pairs walking legs

myriapods

terrestrial arthropods with mandibles, among the earliest on land, include centipes and millipedes

complete/complex metamorphosis

85% of insects, egg -> larva -> pupa -> adult

simple (incomplete)

egg-> nymph -> adult (ex grasshopper)

pupa stage

as larva tissues break down, it becomes an adult

insects

first flying animals, internal fertilization

abdomen organ systems

digestive organs and gonads

crustaceans

marine and freshwater, only arthropods w/ 2 pair antennae, large species have gills, small respirator across membrane,

decapods

10 legs, cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate, ex. lobster, crayfish, crab

copepods

planktonic crustaceans, most numerous of all animals

Echinoderms

"spiny skin", prickly from skeletal bumps and spines, have unique water vascular system branching into tube feet. marine

Sea starts

star shaped echinoderms with multiple arms; mouth directed to substrate. Gripping due to adhesive chemicals. Feed by opening bivalve and inserting stomach into the shell

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set