Mr. Cramer's Awesome Review - DNA and Cell Division

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Nucleotide

Units of DNA made up of phosphate group, deoxyribose, and nitrogen base.

Base Pairing

Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.

Histone

Protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled.

Replication

Process of duplicating DNA.

Transcription

The process of creating mRNA by copying part of the DNA.

Codon

Three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid on mRNA.

Translation

Decoding of an mRNA message into a protein.

Anticodon

The matching three nucleuotides to the codon that specify for a specific amino acid and are found on tRNA.

Messenger RNA

RNA molecule that serves as a copy

Mutation

Changes in DNA sequence (genetic material).

Mitosis

Production of diploid somatic cells.

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm during mitosis and meiosis.

Homologous

Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite sex-parent.

Diploid

Cell that contains full number of chromosomes.

Haploid

Cell that contains half the number of chromosomes (gametes).

Meiosis

The production of haploid gametes.

Crossing Over

Process of homologous chromosomes exchanging a portion of their genetic material.

Double Helix

Shape of DNA.

Chromosome

Structure formed before cell division made of DNA.

Hydrogen Bonds

The force of attraction that holds base pairs together in DNA.

Gene

Segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.

Asexual Reproduction

A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.

Sexual Reproduction

A reproductive process that involves two parents and produces genetically different offspring.

Mutagen

An agent that causes a change to a DNA sequence (radiation, mutagenic chemicals, viral infection).

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