milestones

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Why is DNA considered the universal code for all macromolecules found in life on earth?

codes for enzymes lead to production of all macromolecules.

How can genetically modified plants lead to reduced pesticide use by farmers.

by producing a recombinant DNA molecule with an insect gene of insectide production and inserting it into plants.

Transcription occurs in the ______, while translation occurs in the __________.?

nucleus; cytoplasm

Why is it dangerous to be at the core of a nuclear power plant?

rediation-induced mutations.

Ninety-six percent of the base-pair sequences in chimps and humans are the same. This finding indicates that:

96% of the genes in humans have identical counterparts in chimps.

An onion has five times as much DNA as a human. Why doesn't that make onions more complex than us?

Onions have a larger proportion of non-coding DNA than humans.

Recombinant DNA is

bacterial DNA with inserted foreign DNA.

The full set of an individual organism's DNA is called its:

genome

Today as a treatment for humans suffering from diabetes that individual

may receive insulin produced by bacteria

What cellular process listed below might involve mitosis?

wound healing

order of mitosis

1.Chromosomes Condense
2. Sister chromatids line up at the equator of the cell
3. Chromosomes condense
4. Cytokinesis

Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes:

during mitosis and meiosis, because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent

Using a light microscope, it is easiest to see chromosomes:

during mitosis and meiosis, because the condensed chromosomes are thicker and therefore more prominent

Sister chromatids are:

identical molecules of DNA resulting from replication

Prokaryotic cells can divide via:

binary fission.

In which part of the cell cycle does the cell spend most of its time?

Interphase

The division of the cytoplasm during cell division is referred to as

cytokinesis.

Why do chemotherapy and radiation affect cancer cells and normal cells?

Both treatments affect cells that are actively dividing.

Mitosis results in:

daughter cells with the same number and composition of chromosomes

In which part of the cell cycle does the cell spend most of its time?

Interphase

A human sperm contains ___ chromosomes, but when the sperm fuses with an egg, the total number of chromosomes is ____.

23; 46

A karyotype reveals:

the number, shapes, and sizes of chromosomes in an individual cell

A potential disadvantage of asexual reproduction is that

it produces genetically uniform populations.

Sister chromatids are:

identical molecules of DNA resulting from replication

There are ______ human traits determined by a single gene

more than 9000

Which of the following traits shows a polygenic method of inheritance?

skin color in humans

Which example is the genotype of a true-breeding plant?

Two copies of the white allele
Two copies of the purple allele

In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for purple flowers are crossed, in the offspring:

three-quarters of the flowers will be purple and onequarter will be white.

A flower that is heterozygous for the purple gene (Purple "P" is dominant over white "p") has what phenotype and genotype, respectively?

Purple; Pp

The consequence of the passing of characteristics from parent to offspring through their genes is called

heredity

Traits that are determined by a single gene:

must occur on the X chromosome, because males have only a single X and so the gene must be able to function in the absence of its homologous allele

While on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, Darwin:

nurtured his love of studying nature, exploring plant and animal diversity, and collecting fossils

Which of the following statements about mutations is NOT true?

1. Most mutations are harmful or neutral to the organism in which they occur.
2.The origin of genetic variation is mutation.
3.A mutation is any change in an organism's DNA.
4. Mutations are almost always random with respect to the needs of the organism.

Using uranium 238 in radiometric dating

tells us the age of the rock in which a fossil is found.

Which of the following statements about Charles Darwin is FALSE?

He and Alfred Russel Wallace independently came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection

Convergent evolution can occur only when two species:

evolve under similar selective forces.

Evolution:

is responsible for the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Chick embryos and human embryos both have gills because...

They both share a common ancestor who had gills.

Adaptation:

refers both to the process by which organisms become better matched to their environment and to the features of an organism that make it more fit than other individuals

The energy that a parent puts into the growth, feeding, and care of offspring is called:

reproductive investment.

In a species such as pigeons, in which males are almost indistinguishable in appearance from females, the most likely mating system is

monogamy.

Altruistic behavior in animals may be a result of kin selection, a theory maintaining that:

genes promote the survival of copies of themselves when behaviors by animals that possess those genes assist other animals that share those genes

In mammals, as well as many other species, males generally compete for females. The best explanation for this phenomenon is:

females have a higher parental investment and are the "choosy" sex

Two types of polygamy are:

polygyny and polyandry.

In amphibians, it is generally the case that:

neither the female nor the male invest much energy in the care of offspring.

Babies in the United States quickly and easily develop a fear of snakes. Yet they don't easily develop a fear of guns. Why?

Evolution can be slow in producing populations that are adapted to their environments

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