AP2 Test 2

Created by egrisham7094 

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Function of the blood:

transports hormones
regulates body temperature
fights foreign organisms/substances
buffers the tissues

Parts of the blood:

plasma and formed elements

Plasma

liquid; mostly water; plasma proteins; glucose; hormones; urea; Ne, K, Cl, Fe, Ca (electrolytes); vitamins; enzymes; dissolved gases (O2+CO2+N2)

Formed Elements

solids
erythrocytes (RBC)
leukocytes (WBC)
platelets (clotting)

Leukocytes:

fight infection

Erythrocytes:

transport O2 and CO2

Hemopoiesis

process of blood cell and platelet formation
takes place in the red marrow

Hemocyteoblast

stem cells that form the formed elements

Types of Hemocyteoblast

pro-erythroblast (RBC)
myeloblast (WBC)
lympoblast (WBC)
mono-blast (WBC)
megakaryoblast (platelets)

Composition of Erythrocytes

very small; circular; biconcave disc; anucleate (no nucleus); transport of O2 and CO2; most numerous of the formed elements; hematocrit= packed cells (all cells+platelets); 46.2% average for males & 40.6% for females

Hemoglobin

molecule within RBC's that gives them the ability to transport O2&CO2

Erythropoeisis

process of RBC production

Erythroprotien

substance produced by the kidneys in response to low O2 levels in the blood being supplied to the kidneys

Blood Types

A, B, AB, O

Type A:

type A antigens
type B antibodies
Can donate to A, AB
Can receive from A, O

Type B:

type B antigens
type A antibodies
Can donate to B, AB
Can receive from B, O

Type AB:

type A&B antigens
No antibodies
Can donate to AB
Can receive from A, B, AB, O (universal recipient)

Type O:

No antigens
Type A&B antibodies
Can donate to A, B, AB, O (universal donor)
Can receive from O

Rh+

have Rh antigen, and does not have Rh antibody

Rh-

do not have Rh antigen, and does not have Rh antibody

Anemia

decrease in the number of red blood cells
decrease in hemoglobin concentration
lack of protein/iron/B12 in your diet

Nutritional Anemia

inadequate protein, iron, B12 in diet

Hemorrahagic Anemia

too much bleeding

Pernicious Anemia

can not absorb enough B12

Hemolytic Anemia

distortion in the shape of RBC's (exposer to toxic agents)

Aplastic Anemia

inhibition of red bone marrow

Polycythemia

too many RBC's

Types of Leukocytes

Granulocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

Granulocytes

have granules
small granules that stain light pink to blue black with wrights
most numerous of all the WBC's
phagocytic
amebuld movement
eat bacteria

Eosinophils

course granules
stain reddish orange with wrights
phagocytic: antigen-antibody complexes

Basophils

large granules that stain reddish-purple to blue black with wrights stain
granules contain histamine therein

Types of Agranulocytes

Monocytes
Lymphocytes

Monocytes

enter tissues and change into macrophages

Lymphocytes

T lymphocytes
-directly attack foreign cells/substances
B lymphocytes
-produce antibodies

Platelets

Small cytoplasmic fragments (hot cells)
No nucleus
Produced by megakeryocytes

Blood Clotting

Extrinsic Pathway ---> Tissue Trauma ---> Prothrombinase ---> Thrombin ---> Fibrinogen ---> Fibrin ---> Blood Trauma ---> Intrinsic Pathway

Fibrin

insoluble, thread-like polymer that forms a network across the wound. Attaches to margins and prevents the loss of the formed elements

Prothrombin/Fibrinogen

normally inactive plasma proteins

Heart-Pericardium:

1. Fibrous Pericardium
2. Serous Pericardium

Fibrous Pericardium

outmost
strong
prevents over stretching of the heart

Serous Pericardium

thin
double layer
Parietal and Visceral

Parietal Pericardium

just under the fibrous pericardium

Visceral Pericardium

on the surface of the heart

Pericardial Cavity

between the parietal and visceral pericardium, filled with pericardial fluid

Heart Wall

1. Epicardium
2. Myocardium
3. Endocardium

Epicardium

visceral epicardium

Myocardium

thickest layer, cardiac muscle

Endocardium

innermost, lines chambers, simple squamous epithelium

Chambers of the Heart

2 upper chambers 2 lower chambers

Atria

upper chambers

Ventricles

lower chambers

Valves of the Heart

Left Atrioventricular Valve
Right Atrioventricular Valve
Pulmonary Semilavar Valve
Aortic Semilavar Valve

Right Atrioventricular Valve (AV)

tricuspid
located between the right atria and right ventricle
chordate tendons and papillary muscles

Left Atrioventricular Valve

bicuspid or mitral valve
choroid tendons and papillary muscles

Pulmonary Semilavar Valve (SL)

tricuspid
prevents back flow of blood

Aortic Semilavar Valve

tricuspid
prevent back flow of blood

Ventricular Systole

contraction

Ventricular Diastole

relaxation

Autorythmic Cells

specialized excitatory and conductive muscle fibers that undergo spontaneous, rhythmical self excitation. (produce cellular activity, rhythmically.)

Nodes

collections of autorythmic cells

Sinoartrial Node (SA)

produces electrical charge 70-80 times a minute. located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava.

Atrial Syncytium

all atrial muscle contracts at the same time

Atrioventricular Node (AV)

located in the inter atrial septum detects and holds the discharge of the SA node for about 0.1 sec, then sends it through the AV bundle (Bundle of His)

Right/Left bundle branches

loop back out into the outer ventricular walls

Purkinje Fibers

causing a ventricular syncytium

Two Types of Membrane Junctions

Desmosomes
Gap Junctions

Desmosomes

hold cells together

Gap Junctions

allow speed of electrical activity to occur very fast. (syncytium)

Lub-Dub

normal sound the heart makes

Lub

correlates with AV closures

Dub

correlates with SL closures

Major Categories of Blood Vessels

Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins

Arteries

transport blood away from the heart

Arterioles

small arteries

Capillaries

smallest blood vessels used for nutrient and waste exchange between the tissues and the blood

Venules

small veins

Veins

transport blood toward the heart

Vessel Structures

Tunica Intima
Tunica Media
Tunica Externa

Tunica Intima

innermost layer of the vessels, simple squamous epithelium sometimes referred to the "endothelium" present in all vessels

Tunica Media

middle layer of the vessels, composed of smooth muscle and/or elastic connective tissues.

Tunica Externa

outermost layer of the vessels; composed of fibrous connective tissue

Vasoconstriction

higher blood pressure

Vasodilatation

lower blood pressure

Pre-capillary Sphincters

doughnut shaped smooth muscle

Baroreceptors

"stretch" receptors located in specific vessels
Higher stretch (higher pressure) = body lowers blood pressure

Chemoreceptors

sensitive to pH
a lower pH (higher CO2) causes an increase in blood pressure

Hormones

ADH (antidiuretic hormone) causes an increase in blood pressure

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