Urinary System

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38 terms

excretory system

another name for urinary system

kidneys

a pair of bean-shaped organs that filter water and waste materials from the blood

adipose capsule

fatty tissue surrounding the kidney

renal fascia

protective outer covering of the kidney

cortex

outer layer of the kidney

medulla

inner part of the kidney

hilum

indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave

nephrons

filtering units of the kidney that remove wastes from the blood and produce urine

glomerulus

cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron

Bowman's capsule

C-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and starts the convoluted tubule

urine

liquid waste product produced by the urinary system

renal pelvis

funnel-shaped reservoir that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter

ureters

The tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

bladder

elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body.

rugae

Mucosal folds, which are prominent when the bladder is empty, and disappear as the bladder distends.

peristalsis

involuntary waves of muscle contraction that moves urine through the ureters from the kidney to the bladder

urethra

tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

urinary meatus

the external opening of the urethra.

polyuria

excessive urination

oliguria

below normal amounts of urination

anuria

absence of urine

hematuria

blood in the urine

pyuria

pus in urine

nocturia

urination at night

dysuria

painful urination

retention

inability to empty the bladder

incontinence

involuntary urination

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

acute glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, secondary to strep infection of throat or skin

chronic glomerulonephirits

progressive disease that causes scarring and sclerosing of the glomeruli

hemodialysis

removal of waste products from the blood by an artificial kidney machine

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney

renal calculus

a kidney stone

lithotripsy

procedure where shock waves are used to crush kidney stones so that they can be eliminated through the urine

acute renal failure

sudden loss of kidney function caused by renal cell damage from ischemia or toxic subtances, reversible

chronic renal failure

progressive, unreversible loss fo kidney function

uremia

toxic condition that occures when the kidneys fail and urinary waste products are present in the bloodstream

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemicals

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