AP Biology Circulation and Gas Exchange

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gills

Structures (outgrowths from the body) that create a large surface area over which gas exchange occurs.

tracheae

Chitin-lined tubes in insects that permeate their bodies. Oxygen enters (or CO2 exits) through spiracles (openings).

pharynx

Human nasal cavity.

larynx

Human "voice box" that contains the vocal chords.

epiglottis

Covers the trachea when an animal is swallowing, preventing the entrance of solid and liquid material.

bronchi (bronchioles)

In humans, the trachea branches into two ____, which enter the lungs and then repeatedly branch, forming narrower tubes called (______).

alveolus

Each bronchiole branch ends in a small sac called an ____, which is surrounded by blood-carrying capillaries.

arteries (arterioles)

Vessels moving away from the heart (closed circulatory system). Branch into (_____)

capillaries

Smallest blood vessels.

veins

Returns blood to the heart.

ventricles

Portions of the heart (left and right) which pump out the blood into the arteries. Have thicker walls.

atria

Portions of the heart (left and right) that receive blood from the veins.

AV

___valve prevents between blood from moving backward into the the atria when the ventricles (left and right) contract.

semilunar

___valve prevents backflow of blood into the ventricle after the ventricles relax (connects the ventricles and the aorta on the left side and the ventricles and the pulmonary trunk on the right side).

pulmonary

___circuit is the blood pathway between the heart and lungs.

systemic

___circuit is the circulation pathway between the heart and body.

SA (sinoatrial) (or pacemaker)

___node, located in the upper wall of the right atrium, spontaneously initiates the heart/cardiac cycle by simultenously contracting both atria and also by sending a delayed impulse that stimulates the AV (atrioventricular) node

systole

In the ___ phase, blood is forced through the pulmonary arteries and aorta. Occurs when the ventricles CONTRACT.

diastole

In the ___ phase, ventricles RELAX, the semilunar valve closes to prevent backflow.

veins

Blood moves through the ___ due to the movements of adjacent skeletal muscles which squeeze the blood vessels (not because of the contractions of the heart).

lymphatic

The ___ system is a second network of capillaries and veins through which some interstitial fluids (fluids that bathes/surrounds the cells) and wastes return to the circulatory system. Acts as a filter (with lymph nodes to be cleaning filters and ward against infection).

leukocytes

Another word for white blood cells.

platelets

Cell fragments involved in blood clotting

plasma

Liquid portion of the blood that contains various dissolved substances.

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