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biology

the study of living things

cell

basic structural unit of life

examples of organisms

fish, grass, cat, mushroom, corn

characteristics of life

organization and cells, use of energy, homostasis, growth and development, reproduction

asexual reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes; offspring are identical to parents

living things

multicellular organisms

homeostasis

maintaining stable internal conditions

1,000 meters

kilometer = __?__

meters

in the universal system of measurement, lenght is measured in ____

400 x

magnification of a light microscope

hypothesis

a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions

observation

the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question

experiment

used to test a hypothesis and its predictions

data

a body of facts and information collected during an experiment

variable

the part of an experiment that is tested

control

a variable of comparison

theory

a coherent group of general propositions used as principles of explanation for a class of phenomena

conclusion

the final statement summarizing findings of an experiment

Observation, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, analyze, conclusion

steps of the scientific method

controlled experiment

compares an experimental group and a control group and has independent and dependent variables

find a statement explaining observations, and data can be treated. Now, compare variables to the control group

determine the hypothesis, variables, and control group in an experiment

nucleotide

a monomer of DNA and RNA with nitrogen, phosphate, and sugar

hydrolysis

chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water

amino acid

building block or proteins; a class of organic compounds containing at least one amino group

condensation reaction

a chemical reaction that produces H2O (water)

glucose

C6H12O6 -- a 6 carbon monosacc. ; a result of photosynthesis

enzymes

organic molecules that catalyze reactions in living systems are _____

glucose

a compound found in living things that supplies the energy in its chemical bonds directly to cells is ____

Robert Hooke

_____ coined the term "cell"

bacteria

_____ are believed to be the first photosynthetic organisms on earth

ribosome

organelles that synthesize protein in the Rough E.R.

Rough E.R.

a system of flattened sacs with ribosomes tat produce phospholipids and proteins

Smooth E.R.

builds lipids; has no ribosomes

nucleus

contol center of cell; contains genetic information

golgi apparatus

a system of flattened membranous eukaryotic sacs containing new proteins or lipids; modifies proteins for export

lysosome

vesicles containing digestive enzymes; found in animal cells

mitochondrion

organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP; produce energy; power house of the cell

cilia

hair-like structures that assist in cell movement

flagella

whip-like tail; assist in cell movement

fatty acid

unbranched carbon chain

polypeptide

a chain of 50 or more amino acids would be called a _______

acidic

a solution with a pH of 2 would be best described as being ____

activation energy, temperature, and pH

these 3 things determine the speed or rate of a chemical reaction

eukaryotes

animal and plant cells are examples of ____ (prokaryotes or eukaryotes)

bacterial cell

example of a prokaryotic cell

blood cell

example of a eukaryotic cell

protista

prokaryotes belong to the kingdom _____

RNA

moves through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm to carry out functions, ribonucleic acid, single helix

DNA

contains genetic information; found in nucleus; transribed into RNA; double helix; deoxyribonucleic acid

plasma membrane

another name for the membrane that surrounds the organelles and the cell

hydrophilic head

the "head" of the membrane bilayer molecule is _____

polar

water is ____ (polar or nonpolar)

polar molecules

nonpolar molecules dissolve in other ______ (what type of molecules)

semi-permeable

when a cell only allows certain substances in and out, it is considered _____

small cell

which is more effective? (large cell or small cell)

Cell Theory

all living things are composed of cells; cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism; cells come only from the reproduction of other cells

free ribosomes

make protein on the rough E.R.

Golgi apparatus

packages, processes, and secretes proteins for export

lipids; calcium

Smooth E.R. makes ____ and ____

photo

chloroplasts are the site of _____synthesis

unicellular

prokaryote organisms are ___ (multicellular or unicellular)

ribosome

The nucleolus is the site of _______ synthesis

lysosomes

_____ contain digestive enzymes and get rid of toxins and old organelles

mitochondrion

cells that have a high energy requirement generally have many _____

nucleus; plastids

organeles that are surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA are the ____ and _____

epithelial tissue (skin)

cells that form the surface coverings of animal bodies constitute _____-

specialization

the process in which cells become restricted to carrying out one or a few functions is called Cell _____

organ

the stomach is an example of the level of organization called ____

Singer and Nicholson

proposed the "Fluid Mosaic Model"

deoxyribose

DNA contains a five carbon sugar called _____

cohesion

water clings to itself in a property called ____

hydrogen bonding

the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge

disassociate

when sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the sodium ions _____

carbon atoms

organic compounds contain ______ (are made of ___)

covalent bond is broken

ATP releases energy when ________

polar

the slight positive and slight negative charge in a molecule results in the molecule being called _____

kinetic energy

energy assosciated with movement

metabolism

taken together, the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in a plant or animal cell are called

heterotroph

organisms that can't produce their own food; get energy from other foods

autotrophs

organisms that use energy from photosyntheses as food

bacteria

the first living organism on earth was most likely a bacteria

adaptation

the ability of a species to survive in a particular ecological nice

evolution

the theory that species change over time

ecology

the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and their environment is called

binary fission

an example of asexual reproduction is _____

mitosis

a way to produce new cells in multicellular organisms is called ____

gametes

sexual reproduction involves the mixing of _____ between mates

conjugation

bacteria go through a special kind of sexual reproduction called _____

conjugation tubule

the specialized structure that bacteria use to transfer plasmids between each other and also for attachment to host cells is called the_____

sexual reproduction

when genetic information is passed from parent to offspring, the process is called _____

thymine

in DNA, adenine always pairs with ______

uracil

In RNA, adenine always pairs with _____

cytosine

in DNA or RNA, guanine always pairs with ____

organelles

cells contain membrane bound structures that have a specific function called _____

metabolism

the sum total of all chemical reactions

hydrolysis

____ is a chemical reaction that breaks down a substance

homeostasis

_____ maintains a stable internal environment by controlling metabolism

catalyst

A ______ is a protein that lowers activation energy for reactions to occur.

denature

If the temperature gets too hot or too cold, the protein will _____

base

always carry the microscope by its arm and the _____

ocular

In order to obtain the correct magnification for a compound microscope you must multiply the _____ by the objective lens.

4 x or 10 x

When you first put a slide on the stage for viewing, you must use the _____ objective to focus

slide

the stage clips are for holding the _____ in place

diaphragm

The _____ is adjusted to let more or less light into the viewing area

revolving nose piece

The ____ _____ _____ moves the objective around

10 x

The magnifying power of the ocular lens is _____

body tube

the _____ _____ is an empty tube for light to pass through

objective

The ____ combined with the ocular lens gives the total magnification

carrier protein

The membrane component that allows larger materials in and out of the cell is called _____ _____

peripheral; integral

The lipid bilayer contains two general types of proteins: _____ and _____

integral protein

the membrane component that binds with messengers and allows messages into the cell is called ____

integral

_____ protein is embedded in the membrane

carrier

a _____ protein sticks out at the interior and exterior of a cell

atoms

_____ are the building blocks of molecules

cell or molecule

a ______ is many basic units put together

functions

cells are different sizes and shapes due to their _______

prokaryotic cell

what type of cell lacks a nucleus, and contains plasmids and ribosomes?

plant cells

what type of cell has a cell wall, contains plastids and large vacuoles?

animal cells

what kind of cell has a cell membrane, mitochondria and small vacuoles?

Chlorophyll A

_______ absorbs more red light and less blue light

thylakoids of the chloroplasts

the photostems and electron transport chains are located in the ______

pigments of Chlorophyll A

Both photosystem 1 and photosystem 2 contain ______

providing H+ atoms

water participates directly in the light reactions of photosynthesis by ______

the excited electrons as they pass along the electron transport chain of photosystem 2

the energy that is used to establish the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane comes from_________

CO2 fixation (Kreb's Cycle)

What reaction is catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase

splitting of water molecules

electrons needed to reestablish the cholorphyll in photosystem 2 come from _______

oxidaton

oxygen is a product of the process of_____

2

the number of phosphate groups in an ADP molecule is _____

the sun

the ultimate source of evergy for almost all living things is _____

carotenoids

light absorbing accessory pigments in photosynthesis

photosystem

protein complex in thylakoid membrane; helps with photosynthesis; only in plant cells

PGAL

a 3 carbon compound that occurs as an intermediate in several central metabolic pathways

RuBP

a 5 carbon substrate invovled in carbon fixation; used and created during calvin cycle; product of phosphorylation of ribose

visible spectrum

the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye

chlorophyll

a green pigment present in most plants; gives plants their green color

biochemical pathway

a series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is used in the next reaction

oxygen

what product of the light reactions of photosynthesis is released and does not participate further in photosynthesis?

ATP + NADPH

where does the energy required for the calvin cycle originate

"excited electrons" of PGAL

proteins are moved into the thylakoid using energy from _____

calvin cycle

carbon atoms are fixed into organic compounds in what cycle

H2O

to produce the same amount of carbohydrate, C4 plants require less ______

citric acid

6 carbon; formed in Krebs Cycle; intermediate in the metabolism of carbohydrates

fermentation

cells make limited amounts of ATP by converting glucose into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol- anaerobic respiration

NAD+

2 molecules of nicoeinamde and dinucleotide; accepts electrons during redox reactions

cytosol

water soluble components of cell cytoplasm; aqueous fluid- bathes organelles inside of cell membrane

cell membrane

semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplam of a cell

aerobic respiration

the use of oxygen in the breakdown of something to create energy

glycolysis

glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid; the catabolism of carbohydrates by enzymes

kilocalorie

1/1,000 of a calorie

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