shifts the focus from moral reasoning to the self as a moral agent & to his/her moral experience
Rorty--wys postmodern ethics have placed an emphasis in contemporary ethics on the moral agent own experience
we need to tailor our own beliefs and desires into coherent personal identity, as the foundation of our behavior
Nietzsche-same as quest above
the self can develop counterpractices that create the form of life one desires. this goals counters any belief in God
modern times relationships were intertwined with obedience to the typical code of rules, as Ancient Greek. neither religion nor politics dictated sexual practices but instead an art of self-care prevailed
Women thinking on ethics
they judge themselves as moral agents by ability to care and to remain senitive to others; act from concern
Men thinking on ethics
think in terms of conflicting rights rather than conflicting responibilities. appeal to abstract principles like justice & equality. He judges himself as autonomous individual free from extraneous demands.Act on rules & applications
What are some problems with an ethics of caring & what are some strengths with it per Christians?
women to nuture our children as a God-given natural law, Caring is of course akin to love, so its union with justice is akin to the union of justice and love in christian ethic. ch. 13 p 126
ethic of care
relational beings who live and work together in community
human flourishing or true happiness
MacIntyre's 3 objections to conception of "moral science" 19th & 20th century:
1st-morality is not about people independently of their social setting, for its concerns their lives as a whole, their interaction with one another, their characters, practices, their personal stories.
2nd morality is embedded in social structures, traditions, and history
3rd-moral ethics produced alot of disagreements and conflicting theories, with no independent rational basis for judging how I shuld decide or act or which conceptual schemem is correct
Explain Aristotle's concept of relating the moral life to a goal & how it relates to Christianity
he grounded his teleological ethic into teleological pscychology, which depended in turn on a teleological biology that was part of his overall metaphysics: every nat'l process has its final cause
Explain how virtue ethics allows aplace for motives & intentions to play apart in morality that deontology may ignore.
shape the conscience
Plato's 4 Cardinal Virtues
self control, courage, wisdom, and justice
inner disaposition and character
How are virtues acquired, how do they affect our moral decision amking and behavior?
habits of the mind that are cultivated. they influence moral reasoning, the considerations we take into account, the options we consider, the care in which we seek information or rules we follow
How do virtues relate to God?
love that gives rise to justice and the other virtures of a well-ordered life
How does Holmes answer the question of the relativity of diversity of different virtues within different communties or traditions?
a good disposition is simply a fact about a certain kind of human life, and moral evil is a kind of human defect
Explain ARistotle's concept of virtue as a means between excess and deficiency.
courage lies between excess of foolhardiness & the deficienies of cowardice. BAsically, such virtues are about acting in a morally responisble way, the vices in an irresponsible manner
How does Aristotle view character development?
result of deliberation about the choices we constantlyh make and the ends we desire
Contrast 2 views of character development that arose in 19th century; rational vs. passions & desire. Why does Holmes favor the latter?
Rational in which clear and distinct understanding has the power to overrule and subdue out passions and desire. Reason prevails over immediate self interest. Seem to underlie Kohlberg's appeal to cognitive moral development as the key to moral formation.
Main problem with Freud's deterministic view of character development?
not a view we can hold responsibly, nor are we free to either accept it or reject it; self-referentiality
b-hasty generalization involved
What does Aquinas say we need along with habituation of the virtues?
that obedience to the law's commands could help habituate us to virtue;but he still recognized that habituation alone is not enough without "infusion" holy spirit infuses teh theological virtues such as faith, hope, and love Grace does what human nature alone cannot
Aquinas 3 Theological Virtues
Faith, Love, and Hope
Explain Stanley Hauerwas emphasis on the need for community in character development.
watch their lives and adopt their practices, I sense their ideals are becoming my own. I am apart of a moral culture. Bernard of Clairvaux was praised for teaching through his physical presence, students learned by reading his attitudes, habits and character.