by 250 bc, _______ and _______ were india's 2 main faiths
hinduism became completely dominated by _______
the buddhist idea of ___ ______ proved difficult for many to follow
the buddha had stressed that each person could reach a state of peace called _______. this was achieved by rejecting the sensory world and embracing spiritual discipline
although the buddha had forbidden people to worship him, some began to teach that he was a ___
some buddhists also began to believe that many people could become _______
potential buddhas. could choose to give up nirvana and work to save humanity through good works and self sacrifice
the new ideas changed buddhism from a religion that emphasized individual discipline to a ____ ________ that offered salvation to all and allowed popular worship
those who accepted new buddhist doctrines belonged to the _________ sect
those who held to the buddha's stricter, original teachings belonged to the __________ sect
another name for theravada
new trends in buddhism inspired indian ___
wealthy buddhist merchants who were eager to do good deeds paid for the construction of _______ - mounded stone structures built over holy relics
buddhas walked the paths circling the stupas as part of their ___________
merchants commissioned the carving of cave ________ out of solid rock.
by the time of the mauryan empire, hinduism had developed a complex set of __________ that could be performed only by the priests.
gradually, hinduism changed. a trend toward ____________ was growing
creator of the world
preserver of the world
destroyer of the world
out of the 3 gods, ______ and _____ were by far the favorites.
one of india's greatest writers, maybe the court poet for chandra gupta ii. worte shakuntala
by kalidasa, about a beautiful girl who falls in love and marries a middle age king. they are separated, then suffer from a curse which prevents them from recognizing each other.
generations of indians have continued to admire kalidasa's plays because they are __________ written and emotionally stirring
southern india also has a rich literary tradition. in the 2nd century ad, the city of _______ in southern india became a site of writing academies. more than 2000 tamil poems from this period still exist.
in addition to literature, _____ was very popular. in southern india, traveling troupes of actors put on performances in cities across the region.
because sailors on trading ships used the stars to help them figure their position at sea, knowledge of __________ increased.
from greek invaders, indians adapted western methods of keeping ____. they began to use a calendar based on the cycles of the sun rather than the moon.
during the ______ ______, knowledge of astronomy increased further.
indian astronomers proved that the earth was round by observing a _____ _______. during it, the earth's shadow fell across the face of the moon. the astronomers noted that the earth's shadow was curved. thus, the earth was round
numerals, zero, decimal
modern _________, the ____, and the _______ system were invented in india
calculated the value of pi to four decimal places. also calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.
in addition to knowledge, india has always been rich in precious _________ such as spices, diamonds, sapphires, gold, pearls, and beautiful woods.
groups who invaded india after mauryan rule ended helped to expand india's _____ to new regions.
central asian nomads told indians about a vast network of caravan routes known as ____ _____. they were known as this because traders used them to bring silk from china to western asia and then onto rome
once indians learned of silk roads, they realized they could make profits by acting as _________
to aid their roles as middlemen, indians built _______ ________ along the silk roads
traders used _______ ______ around the rim of the arabian sea and along the persian gulf to bring goods from india to rome.
traders from southern india would sail to southeast asia to collect ______. they brought them back to india and sold them to merchants from rome.
romans were upset about the amount of ____ their country spent on indian luxuries. they believed that to foster a healthy economy, a state must collect ____ rather than spend it
india imported ______ ivory and gold, and exported cotton cloth
rice and wheat went to ______ in exchange for dates and horses.
when indian trade with rome went down in the 3rd century AD, sea trade with _____ and the southeast asian islands increased.
increased trade led to the rise of _______ in india
_________ was quite profitable
_______ rates varied, depending on how risky business was
during mauryan times, the annual interest rate on loans used for overseas trade was ___ percent
during the gupta empire, bankers no longer considered sea trade so dangerous, so they charged only __ to __ percent a year
a number of indian merchants went to live abroad and brought indian _______ with them. as a result, people throughout asia adapted a variety of indian traditions
thailand, cambodia, java
indian influence was especially strong in these countries