Sociology Chapter 9

41 terms by dhogan111 

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Power

Definition by max weber - The ability to exercise one's will over another, even it they resist

Three types of power sources

Force, Influence, Authority

Force

The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others

Influence

Refers to the exercise of power through a process of persuasion

Authority

Institutionalized power that is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised

Max Weber's Classification system for authority

Three types of authority - traditional, rational-legal, charismatic

Traditional authority

Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice. Ex. King is accepted as ruler of a nation simply by virtue of inheriting the crown

Rational-Legal Authority

Involves formally agreed-upon and accepted rules, principles and procedures of conduct that are established in order to accomplish goals in the most efficient manner. EX. US Constitution grants president and congress authority

Charismatic Authority

Power made legitimate by a leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. EX. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X

Industrial Society

A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services

Economic System

Refers to the social institution through which goods and services are produced distributed and consumed

Two types of economic systems

Capitalism and Socialism

Capitalism

An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits

Laissez-faire

Term coined by Adam Smith. A form of capitalism (let them do as they choose). People could compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy.

Monopoly

Exists when a single business firm controls the market.

View of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Capitalism forced large numbers of people to exchange their labor for low wages. They argued that the owners of industry profit from the labor of workers primarily by paying workers less than the value of the goods produced

Socialism

The means of production and distribution in a society are collectively rather than privately owned.

Communism

Economic System under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis o people's ability to produce

Mixed Economy

Features elements of more than one economic system. Usually involves removing some goods and services from the competitive free market and providing them for all and the competitive free market. Combines elements of socialism and captialism

Informal Economy

Transfers of money, goods, or services take place by are not reported to the government. EX bartering in which people trade for goods and services

Deindustrialization

The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants

Downsizing

Involves reducing the size of a company's workforce. The goal is to increase efficiency and reduce costs in the face of growing worldwide competition

Offshoring

Transfer work to foreign contractors

Harold Lasswell

Created definition of "politics"

Politics

"who gets what, when and how" - Lasswell

Political system

The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society's goals, such as the allocation of valued resources

Monarchy

Form of government headed by a single member of a royal family, usually a queen or king, or some other hereditary ruler

Oligarchy

A form of government in which a few individuals rule

Dictatorship

A government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws. They rule primarily through the use of coercion, which includes imprisonment, torture and executions.

Totalitarianism

Involves virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society's social and political life

Democracy

Government by the people.

Representative Democracy

A form of government in which certain individuals are selected to speak for the people

Elite Model

A view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests. This view was held by Karl Marx of a Representative Democracy

Power Elite

Term coined by C Wright Mills. A small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States

G William Dornhoff

Agreed with C Wright Mills Power Elite theory. Stressed the role played by elites from within networks of organizations including the corporate community: policy formation organizations such as think tanks, chambers of commerce, and labor unions; and he social upper class

Pluralist Model

As opposed to elite models, in this model many competing groups within the community have access to the government so that no single group is dominant. They make use of intensive case studies or community studies based on observation research

Robert Dahl

supported the pluralist model. found that, although the number of people involved in any important decision was small, community power was nonetheless diffuse

Dianne Pinderhughes

Criticized the pluralist model for failing to account for the exclusion of African Americans from the political process

War

Conflict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weopons

Terrorism

The use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims

Peace

The absence of war, or more broadly, a proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations

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