the Muslim name for the one and only god
the group that constantly moves from place to place in search of food and water; have no permanent home.
the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam
the Arab nomads; were organized into groups called clans
a city in western Arabia; brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at an ancient shrine in the city (Ka'aba)
a shrine located in Mecca which religious pilgrims came to worship
a prophet who was believed to have spoken with the angel of Gabriel; believed he was the last of the prophets; began to teach that Allah was the one and only god and all other gods must be abandoned.
was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
a believer or follower of Islam
the civilization of Muslims collectively which is governed by the Muslim religion
the migration of Muhammad and his supporters from Mecca to Yathrib; turning point for Muhammad (Meccans believed that his revolutionary ideas would lead to neglect of the traditional Arab gods; feared that if people accepted his beliefs, Mecca would lose it position as a pilgrimage center.)
Muslim religious community
the Islamic holy month where; Muslims fast between dawn and sunset; fasting reminds Muslim that their spiritual needs are more important than their physical needs.
Five Pillars of Islam
5 duties that you must carry out to be a Muslim.
consists of 5 duties- faith, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage
an Islamic house of worship; face towards Mecca to pray 5 times a day
pilgrimage to Mecca
a scholar class that includes religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life.
the holy book of the Islams; only written in Arabic- considered the only true word of Allah
a chapter of the Qur'an
an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad
a body of law governing the lives of Muslims
Dome of the Rock
earliest surviving Islamic monument located in Jerusalem
loyal friend of Muhammad; became the first caliph
A leader of an Islamic polity, regarded as a successor of Muhammad; means successor or deputy
group of 4 elected caliphs who ruled by using the Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guides to leadership
means striving; referring to a struggle against unbelievers; Abu-Bakr applied this meaning of jihad to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam
a dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire; moved the Muslim capital to Damascus; surrounded themselves with wealth; gave rise to a fundamental division in the Muslim community
a dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750-1258; killed remaining members of the Umayyad family except Abd- al-Rahman
was the only Umayyad that escaped the slaughter; set up an Umayyad caliphate in North Africa
Muslims from North Africa who conquered and settled in Spain
Muslim state where the Berbers settled (in southern Spain)
a member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad's daughter Fatima and that built an empire in North Africa, Arabia, and Syria
1. Muslims at birth
2. Converts to Islam
3. "protected people"
House of Wisdom
a center of learning established in Baghdad in the 800s
Abbasid capital city
the art of beautiful handwriting