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Allah

the Muslim name for the one and only god

Nomadic

the group that constantly moves from place to place in search of food and water; have no permanent home.

Middle East

the area around the eastern Mediterranean; from Turkey to northern Africa and eastward to Iran; the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity and Islam

Bedouins

the Arab nomads; were organized into groups called clans

Mecca

a city in western Arabia; brought religious pilgrims who came to worship at an ancient shrine in the city (Ka'aba)

Ka'aba

a shrine located in Mecca which religious pilgrims came to worship

Muhammad

a prophet who was believed to have spoken with the angel of Gabriel; believed he was the last of the prophets; began to teach that Allah was the one and only god and all other gods must be abandoned.

Khadijah

was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad

Muslim

a believer or follower of Islam

Islam

the civilization of Muslims collectively which is governed by the Muslim religion

Hijrah

the migration of Muhammad and his supporters from Mecca to Yathrib; turning point for Muhammad (Meccans believed that his revolutionary ideas would lead to neglect of the traditional Arab gods; feared that if people accepted his beliefs, Mecca would lose it position as a pilgrimage center.)

Umma

Muslim religious community

Ramadan

the Islamic holy month where; Muslims fast between dawn and sunset; fasting reminds Muslim that their spiritual needs are more important than their physical needs.

Five Pillars of Islam

5 duties that you must carry out to be a Muslim.
consists of 5 duties- faith, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage

Mosque

an Islamic house of worship; face towards Mecca to pray 5 times a day

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca

Ulama

a scholar class that includes religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life.

Qu'ran

the holy book of the Islams; only written in Arabic- considered the only true word of Allah

Surahs

a chapter of the Qur'an

Sunna

an Islamic model for living, based on the life and teachings of Muhammad

Shari'a

a body of law governing the lives of Muslims

Dome of the Rock

earliest surviving Islamic monument located in Jerusalem

Abu-Bakr

loyal friend of Muhammad; became the first caliph

Caliph

A leader of an Islamic polity, regarded as a successor of Muhammad; means successor or deputy

Caliphate

group of 4 elected caliphs who ruled by using the Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guides to leadership

jihad

means striving; referring to a struggle against unbelievers; Abu-Bakr applied this meaning of jihad to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam

Umayyads

a dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire; moved the Muslim capital to Damascus; surrounded themselves with wealth; gave rise to a fundamental division in the Muslim community

Abbasids

a dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750-1258; killed remaining members of the Umayyad family except Abd- al-Rahman

Adb al-Rhman

was the only Umayyad that escaped the slaughter; set up an Umayyad caliphate in North Africa

Berbers

Muslims from North Africa who conquered and settled in Spain

al-Andalus (Cordoba)

Muslim state where the Berbers settled (in southern Spain)

Fatimid

a member of a Muslim dynasty that traced its ancestry to Muhammad's daughter Fatima and that built an empire in North Africa, Arabia, and Syria

Muslim classes

1. Muslims at birth
2. Converts to Islam
3. "protected people"
4. slaves

House of Wisdom

a center of learning established in Baghdad in the 800s

Damascus

Umayyad capital

Baghdad

Abbasid capital city

Cairo

Fatimid capital

Calligraphy

the art of beautiful handwriting

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