the proximal expanded end of the ureter lying within the renal sinus.
receive urine from the collecting tubules of the renal pyramids and convey it to the major calyces
empty into the renal pelvis
Urine is carried down the ureters by
located at the distal end of the ureter, where it unites with the urinary bladder
Prior to the start of an IV urogram, which of the following procedures should be carried out?
1. Have patient empty the bladder.
2. Review the patient's allergy history.
3. Check the patient's creatinine level.
emptying the bladder is advised
to avoid dilution of the contrast agent. Diluted contrast within the bladder will not affect the diagnosis of renal abnormalities, but it may obscure bladder abnormalities
The normal BUN level is
8 to 25 mg/100 mL
normal creatinine range is
0.6 to 1.5 mg/100 mL
Which of the following radiologic procedures requires that a contrast medium be injected into the renal pelvis via a catheter placed within the ureter?
Retrograde urography requires
ureteral catheterization so that a contrast medium can be introduced directly into the pelvicalyceal system
This procedure provides
excellent opacification and structural information but does not demonstrate the function of these structures
IV studies such as the IVU demonstrate
an examination of the bladder and urethra, frequently performed during voiding
is performed after IV administration of a contrast agent; it may be used to evaluate small intrarenal lesions and renal hypertension.
The oblique IVU projections should be approximately
30°; this position significantly changes the position of the kidneys
When the abdomen is obliqued, the kidney of the "down" side is
perpendicular to the IR; the kidney of the "up" side is parallel to the IR
Which of the following examinations require(s) special identification markers in addition to the usual patient name and number, date, and side marker?
3. Abdominal survey
IVU images should indicate
the amount of time elapsed postinjection
Tomographic images should indicate
the fulcrum level
Abdominal survey images should be marked according to
body position (such as erect or decubitus)
Which of the following conditions is often the result of ureteral obstruction or stricture?
a collection of urine in the renal pelvis due to obstructed outflow, as from a stricture or obstruction
If the obstruction occurs at the level of the bladder or along the course of the ureter, it will be accompanied by
the condition of hydroureter above the level of obstruction.
These conditions may be demonstrated during
refers to some condition of the renal pelvis
refers to drooping or downward displacement of the kidneys. This may be demonstrated using the erect position during IV urography.
inflammation of the bladder and urethra
During intravenous (IV) urography, the prone position is generally recommended to demonstrate
1. the filling of ureters.
2. the renal pelvis.
The kidneys lie
obliquely in the posterior portion of the trunk, with their superior portion angled posteriorly and their inferior portion and ureters angled anteriorly
Therefore, to facilitate filling of the most anteriorly placed structures, the patient is examined in the
Opacified urine then flows to the most dependent part of the kidney and ureter:
the ureteropelvic region, inferior calyces, and ureters.
With which of the following is zonography associated?
1. Thick tomographic cuts
2. Less blurring than with pluridirectional tomography because a narrow exposure angle is used
a thick tomographic section, or "cut"; it appears more similar to conventional radiography. A thick tomographic slice is produced by using a short exposure amplitude (arc), resulting in limited blurring of the radiographic image
Pluridirectional tomography produces
maximal blurring of the radiographic image and generally uses a long exposure amplitude, resulting in a thin tomographic section or "cut."
When the erect position is requested as part of an IVU, it is used to demonstrate
With the patient erect, the kidneys normally
change position, dropping no more than 2 inches. More marked dropping of the kidney is termed nephroptosis, a condition that is actually due to loss of the surrounding perinephric fat
Which of the following radiologic examinations can demonstrate ureteral reflux?
The vesicourethral orifice, as well as other sphincter muscles, relaxes during
urination; however, the vesicoureteral orifices may also relax and cause reflux.
What should you do if you discover while taking the patient history that a patient scheduled for an intravenous urogram (IVU) takes Glucophage (metformin hydrochloride) daily?
1. Reschedule the examination until the patient has been off Glucophage for 48 hours.
2. Instruct the patient to withhold the Glucophage for 48 hours after the examination.
Glucophage (metformin hydrochloride)
is used as an adjunct to appropriate diet to lower blood glucose level in patients who have type 2 diabetes and whose hyperglycemia is not being managed satisfactorily with diet alone
Patients on Glucophage who are having intravascular iodinated contrast studies can develop
an acute alteration of renal function or acute acidosis