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Myo

Muscle

Sarco

Muscle

Ligament

Bone to bone

Tendon

Muscle to bone. Fuse w bone periosteum

Fasciculus

Muscle fiber

Fibrils

Fibers in fasciculus. Muscle cell

Sarcoplasm

Muscular cytoplasm

Myofibril

Fibers in fibril.

Filaments

Fibers in myofibril. Actin and myosin

Small to large muscle formations

Filaments myofibril fibril fasciculus muscle

Sarcomere

Repeating pattern of actin and myosin.

Dystrophin

Protein fiber holds actin in place. Missing in md patients

Muscular dystrophy

Missing dystrophin, genetic, muscles atriphy. Duchenne- sex linked form

Hypertrophy

Muscles increase in diameter

Myoglobin

Protein that bonds to oxygen

Working out

Tear and produce more myofibrils. Increases myoglobin hypertrophy mitochondria and capillaries

Steroid effects

Organ damage, increase cholesterol, atherosclerosis, sad, violent, delusional

Muscle needs for contraction

Nervous stimulation, ph, oxygen, ca, energy

Acetylcholine

Neurotransmitter

Motor unit

Motor neuron and its controlled fibrils

Motor point

Place where motor neuron enters the muscle

Neuromuscular junction

Space between neuron and muscle

Aerobic

High o levels. 1 glucose makes 36 atp. 1 fatty acid 17 atp

2 cellular respiration

Aerobic, anaerobic

Anaerobic

1 glucose yields 2 atp. Low o. Yields pyruvic acid-lactic acid

Rigor mortis

Lock up after death, sever atp depletion

Stored energy

Creatine/phosphate, glycogen in liver, fatty acid

2 factors of muscle performance

Conditioning and genes

Fast twitch

Weight lifters, less vessels myoglobin o mitochondria atp

Slow twitch

Endurance

Intermediate twitch

In between fast and slow

Muscle contraction

Acetylcholine, calcium ions diffuse, ca removes inhibiting protein from actin exposing active site, atp makes myosin crossbridge cock, 2nd atp breaks bond

Muscle relaxation

Passive. Atp break bonds, ca actively transported back to sarcoplasmic reticulum,

Cramp

Contracture, not enough atp to break bond

All or none law

Single muscle fibril will always completely contract or not at all with threshold

Threshold

Proper neurotransmitter stimulus for contraction

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum, prevents release of acetylcholine, paralyze muscles-diaphram

Clostridium tetani

Cause rigidity, lockjaw. From puncture would w spores

Polio

Virus attacks neurons, paralyze leg and respiratory.

Jonas salk

Polio vaccine

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