all of the surrounding things, conditions, and influences affecting the growth or development of living things.
a cone-shaped hill or mountain around this opening, built up of the material that is forced out.
a shaking or sliding of the ground. It is caused by the sudden movement of masses of rock along a fault or by changes in the size and shape of masses of rock far beneath the earth's surface.
preventing soil erosion from water and wind.
produced by fire, great heat, or the action of a volcano; solidified from a molten state. Igneous rock is formed by the cooling and solidification of magma.
rocks fromed from sediment derived not only from rock fragments but also from plant and animal remains
Rock changed in structure by heat, moisture, and pressure.
a huge, rocky region that curves around Hudson Bay like a giant horseshoe. The Shield covers half the land area of Canada.
an oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons.
The term "iron ore" is used when the rock is sufficiently rich in iron minerals to be mined economically.
a white, radioactive metallic chemical element that weighs more than any other element in nature.
a solid, hard black substance that burns and gives off heat. Coal is composed mostly of carbon. It is formed from partly decayed vegetable matter under great pressure and heat in the earth.
ny on of several substances made from various minerals, wood ashes, blast furnace dust, or the like, and used in making soap, fertilizers, and glass.
a white substance found in the earth and in seawater; sodium chloride; table salt. Salt is used to season and preserve food and in many industrial processes.
a metallic chemical element that looks like silver and is somewhat like iron. Nickel is hard and used as an alloy and in electroplating.
a substance obtained by mining or digging in the earth
the science or art of metals. It includes the study of their properties and structure, the separation and refining of metals from their ores, the production of alloys, and the shaping and treatment of metals by heat and rolling.
the heaviest, thickest form of petroleum.
a chemical made or derived from petroleum or natural gas
On 13 Feb 1947, the Leduc No 1 well, in Alberta, successfully tapped the huge Leduc oil field. By the end of 1947, some 30 wells in the field were producing 3500 barrels of oil a day.
belonging to the structure of the earth's crust and to general changes in it, such as folding or faulting.